Central Committee of the Communist Party of Peru: “The Path of the Chinese Revolution”

We hereby publish a document by the Communist Party of Peru from October, 1977, outlining the process of the Chinese revolution from the fall of the Ching Dynasty in 1911 to the counterrevolutionary State coup and capitalist restoration in October, 1976. This document has never before been published in the English language — we are therefore very proud to be the ones to present it for the first time.

LEARN FROM CHAIRMAN GONZALO!
FIGHT FOR COMMUNISM!

During the January Storm of 1967, the revolutionary masses of Shanghai reconquered State power from the handful of capitalist roaders who had usurped the political organs of the city, establishing the Shanghai People’s Commune. It was a great historic experience and the high point of the cultural revolution, although Chairman Mao proposed to reorganize it as the Shanghai Revolutionary Committee in order to make it more stable.
The Long March of the Chinese Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army took place from the 16th of October, 1934, to the 22nd of October, 1935 — more than one year. The Red Army traversed more than 9,000 kilometers and was reduced in size from 300,000 to 30,000 soldiers, but the Long March allowed the establishment of new support bases after the loss of old ones and thus, in the end, allowed for the victory of the people’s war. In a poem, Chairman Mao wrote:
“The Red Army fears not the trials of the March,
Holding light ten thousand crags and torrents.
The Five Ridges wind like gentle ripples
And the majestic Wumeng roll by, globules of clay.
Warm the steep cliffs lapped by the waters of Golden Sand,
Cold the iron chains spanning the Tatu River.
Minshan’s thousand li of snow joyously crossed,
The three Armies march on, each face glowing.”
Women workers writing a big character poster to criticize Lin Piao and Confucius.
During the Chinese cultural revolution, graffiti and postering were not only legal — they were constitutionally guaranteed rights. The 1975 Constitution of the People’s Republic of China established:
“Speaking out freely, airing views fully, holding great debates and writing big-character posters are new forms of carrying on socialist revolution created by the masses of the people. The State shall ensure to the masses the right to use these forms […]
Red Guards demonstrating during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.
During Teng Hsiao-ping’s visit to Lima, Peru in December, 1980, the Communist Party of Peru put dead dogs in the streetlights with signs saying: “Teng Hsiao-ping, son of a bitch!”. In Peru, dogs are street animals and are considered similar to rats in Europe and North America. Teng was also very fond of eating dogs, a habit which had been fought in China during the cultural revolution since it was a luxury food afforded only by the bourgeoisie.
More than 100,000 people protest in Peking in May, 1965, against the U.S. invasion of the Dominican Republic.

Proletarians of all countries, unite!
There is one goal, the conquest of power!

THE PATH OF THE CHINESE REVOLUTION

Central Committee
Communist Party of Peru
October 1977

Red Sun
Supplement to No. 29, December 2007
Translated and reproduced by
The Red Flag

THE PATH OF THE CHINESE REVOLUTION

1. DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION
CONQUEST OF POWER IN MIDST OF THE ARMED STRUGGLE

1911Revolution of 1911; deposition of the Ching Dynasty.
1919May 4th Movement.
1921Founding of the Communist Party of China, the 1st of July.
19241st Revolutionary Civil War. United front: Communist Party of China and Kuomintang.
1926Northern Expedition of the revolutionary armed forces. Mao Tse-tung‘s view of the democratic revolution; his allies and enemies.
1926Right-opportunism of Chen Tu-hsiu: capitulation in the united front.
1927
AprilChiang Kai-shek‘s counterrevolutionary State coup aims to crush the masses and the Party.
AugustThe Central Committee of the Communist Party of China rectifies the line and excludes Chen Tu-hsiu.
September2nd Revolutionary Civil War. Chairman Mao directs the Autumn Harvest Uprising and creates the first revolutionary support base in the Chingkang Mountains.
„Left“-opportunist line of Chu Chiu-pai.
1930„Left“-opportunist line of Li Li-san.
1931„Left“-opportunist line of Wang Ming.
1934The Long March of the Red Army.
1935Tsunyi Meeting, the Communist Party of China established a directorship headed by Chairman Mao, adhering to his line and rejecting the Right- and „Left“-opportunist lines.
1937War of Resistance Against Japan. United front: Communist Party of China and Kuomintang.
1937Right-opportunism of Wang Ming, capitulation in the united front.
1939Liu Shao-chi published his book about „self-cultivation“.
1942Rectification campaign of the work style in the Communist Party of China.
19453rd Revolutionary Civil War. Against the Kuomintang.
1945Liu Shao-chi‘s Right-opportunism, proposes to give over the weapons to Chiang Kai-shek in return for parliamentary seats.
19491st of October, Chairman Mao proclaims the founding of the People‘s Republic of China at the conquest of power in the entire country.

2. SOCIALIST REVOLUTION

A. CONTINUATION OF THE REVOLUTION UNDER THE DICTATORSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT

1949
MarchAt the 2nd Plenum of the Central Committee, Chairman Mao points out that once power is conquered, the main contradiction is between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, and he warns that some communists will allow themselves to be let themselves be defeated by the sugar-coated bullets of the bourgeoisie.
AprilLiu Shao-chi states that „exploitation is a merit“ and raises the programme of „consolidating the new democratic order“.
1950Promulgation of the Agrarian Reform Law, confiscation of feudal lands, confiscation of all bureaucratic capital.
1952War of Resistance Against U.S. Aggression and to Aid Korea.
1953Chairman Mao outlines the basic line for the period of socialist transformation of capitalist property in the means of production, agriculture, handicrafts, industry and commerce, which fundamentally culminates in 1956.
1954Right-opportunism of Kao Kang and Yao Shu-shih.
1955The rise of agricultural cooperativization. Liu opposes, he says „first mechanization, then cooperativization“. Mao encourages collectivization; he writes „Problems of Agricultural Cooperativization“.

B. DEVELOPMENT ON THE SOCIALIST OR THE CAPITALIST ROAD

19568th Congress. The Right advances. Liu Shao-chi says: „Today the question of who, in our country, will triumph in the struggle between socialism and capitalism, is already resolved.“ And he promotes bourgeois liberalization, stimulated by the revisionist overflow at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
1957Chairman Mao elucidates the class struggle in socialism in his work „On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People“ where he states: The question of ‚who will win‘, socialism or capitalism, is not yet definitively solved.“
1957Attack by the bourgeois Rightists, calling for „rotating government“.
1958Chairman Mao lays down the general line of socialist construction: To exert all forces and strive to march ever forward in order to build socialism according to the standards of quantity, rationality, quality and economy.“
1958Chairman Mao impulses the three red flags: General Line, Great Leap Forward and People‘s Communes.
1959
AprilDeposition of Mao as President of the Republic, which is assumed by Liu Shao-chi.
August8th Plenum of the Central Committee. Right-opportunism of Peng Te-huai, attacking the „three red flags“. Backsliding in the people‘s commune: property is downgraded from commune level to brigade level. Mao initiates the reconquest of power, overthrows Peng Te-huai, Minister of Defense; the Left takes positions in the People‘s Liberation Army, although the careerist Lin Piao rises.
DecemberResolution on ideological-political work in the People‘s Liberation Army.
1960Three years of economic difficulties due to natural disasters.
JulyThe Soviet revisionists annull all economic contracts and recall all their technicians in China.
1961Publication of „Hai Jui Dismissed from Office“ by Wu Han, „Three-Family-Village“, etc., as part of the Rightist offensive in propaganda and culture.
1962Right-deviation of Liu Shao-chi, proposes the „three self, one guarantee“. Teng Hsiao-ping seconds him with his „white cat, black cat“.

C. PREPARATION OF THE GREAT PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION

1962
JanuaryChairman Mao prevents „resurgence of revisionism in the Central Committee“.
September10th Plenum. Chairman Mao puts forward the fundamental line for the stage of socialism: „Socialist society covers a fairly long historical stage. During the historical stage of socialism, there are still classes, class contradictions and class struggle: there is the struggle between the socialist and capitalist road, and there is the danger of capitalist restoration. It is necessary to understand how long and complicated this struggle is. It is imperative to raise our vigilance. It is necessary to carry out socialist education. It is necessary to understand and deal correctly with the problem of class contradictions and the class struggle and to distinguish correctly the contradictions between us and the enemy from those existing within the people, and to deal with them correctly. Otherwise, a socialist country like ours will become the opposite, it will degenerate and restoration will take place.“ And he launches the appeal Never forget the class struggle!“.
1963
MayThe Central Committee elaborates the „10-Point Decision“ on the Socialist Education Movement. Chairman Mao says that to abandon the class struggle would produce „a fatal counterrevolutionary restoration on a national scale, the marxist-leninist Party would transform into a revisionist or fascist party, and all of China would change its color“.
Revolution in art and literature, Chiang Ching heads the Peking Opera and other artistic branches.
JuneThe Communist Party of China publishes the document of 25 points in the Great Polemic against contemporary revisionism.
1964„Left“-deviation of Liu Shao-chi against the Socialist Education Movement, applying the reactionary bourgeois line against the cadres.
JulyThe Communist Party of China establishes 15 questions about preventing restoration in the document „On Khrushchev‘s Phoney Communism and Its Lessons for the World“.
December„23-Point Decision“ of the Central Committee. Mao establishes: „The main target of the current movement are those elements within the Party who have power and follow the capitalist road.“
1965Aggravation of the worldwide anti-China campaign launched by imperialism and revisionism. The U.S. expands its aggression in Vietnam and threatens China with war.
MarchThe Chinese government responds that it will defeat imperialism if attacked.
The People‘s Liberation Army fights the bourgeois military line diffused by Luo Yui-ching, leader of the main force of the Army. It reaffirms its people‘s character and prepares itself to support the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

3. CHINA‘S GREAT PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION

A. ANTECEDENTS OF THE GREAT PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION

1965
MayChairman Mao writes: „Nothing is impossible if you dare to scale the heights!“, in his poem „Reascending Chingkangshan“.
SeptemberChairman Mao initiates the criticism of the drama „Hai Jui Dismissed from Offfice“.
NovemberYao Wen-yuan publishes an article in Shanghai against the mentioned drama.
1966
FebruaryChiang Ching conducts a forum in Shanghai about art and literature in the People‘s Liberation Army.
FebruaryPeng Chen, successor of Liu Shao-chi, publishes an „outline of a report“ usurping the name of the Central Committee in order to suppress the cultural revolution.
MayChairman Mao gives his instruction of May 7th.
MayPublication of important articles such as „Never Forget the Class Struggle“ and „About ‚Three-Family-Village‘“.

B. OUTLINE OF THE GREAT PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION
MOBILIZATION OF THE RED GUARDS

MayThe Central Committee agrees on the „May 16th Circular“ which points out the road of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. There, Chairman Mao points out: „The representatives of the bourgeoisie have infiltrated the Party, governmnet, army and various cultural sectors; they are a group of counterrevolutionary revisionists who are conquering power in order to convert the dictatorship of the proletariat into the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie as soon as the opportunity presents itself.“
MayOn the 28th, the Central Committee reorganizes the Party‘s Peking Municipal Committee, a true fiefdom of Peng Chen, who is overthrown together with the revisionists Shu Ping-yi, Cheu Yang (who controlled the propaganda of the Party) and Luo Yui-ming.
JuneOn the 1st, Chairman Mao publishes his „first marxist-leninist big character poster“ in the entire country, written for revolutionary rebels at Peking University. It inspires the creation of Red Guards organizations.
JuneOn the 6th, secondary school students request that the Central Committee transforms the educational system.
JuneOn the 13th, the Central Committee suspends classes for six months so that the students may take part in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and in order to radically transform the educational system.
JuneDuring more than 50 days, Liu Shao-chi and Teng Hsiao-ping repress the student masses and send „work teams“ to disrupt the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.
AugustOn the 5th, Chairman Mao publishes his big character poster: „Bombard the Headquarters!“.
AugustOn the 8th the 11th Plenum of the Central Committee approves the „Decision of 16 Points On the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution“ which states: „Our current objective is to crush, through struggle, those who occupy directing positions and follow the capitalist road. To criticize and repudiate the bourgeois reactionary ‚authorities‘ in the academic field. To criticize and repudiate the ideology of the bourgeoisie and other exploiting classes and to transform education, literature and art and the other domains of the superstructure that do not correspond to the economic basis of socialism, in order to facilitate the consolidation and development of the socialist system.“
AugustChairman Mao writes a letter to the Red Guards. He receives them on eight occasions in Tien An Men Square, meeting a total of 13,000,000 young fighters who would then set out to spread the flames of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution to all the cities and villages of the country.
SeptemberThe Right tries to divide the masses and pit them against each other. It launches the counter-current of Winter 1966 and Spring 1967 to rehabilitate Liu Shao-chi. It unleashes counterrevolutionary economism, promotes strikes and squanders State funds to prevent the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

C. THE WORKING CLASS AND THE „JANUARY STORM“
INITIATION OF THE CONQUEST OF POWER
CAMPAIGN TO CRITICIZE AND REPUDIATE THE REVISIONIST LINE OF LIU SHAO-CHI

1967
JanuaryThe working class of Shanghai rises up against the revisionist directors entrenched in the Municipal Party Committee. It creates its revolutionary rebel organizations. On the 6th it seizes the Shanghai newspapers and from there unmasked the revisionist directors and their economist wind.
JanuaryOn the 9th, power is conquered in the city and an urgent statement is sent out.
JanuaryOn the 11th, the Central Committee sends them its greetings.
JanuaryThe proletariat and the masses of the city succeeded in winning over the revolutionary peasantry, crushing the attempt to confront them on the grounds of economism. Following Chairman Mao‘s guidelines, Chang Chun-Chiao, Yao Wen-yuan, and Wang Hung-wen led these struggles.
JanuaryChairman Mao, after leading this struggle, synthesizes it and launches the appeal: „Proletarian revolutionaries, unite to seize power from the handful of directors who follow the capitalist road within the Party!“ He also fights the erroneous tendencies in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution movement (ultra-democratism, individualism, anarchism) and calls to adhere to the proletarian revolutionary discipline.
FebruaryChairman Mao states that he has just discovered the means to continue the revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat, to „mobilize the broad masses openly, in all fields and from the bottom up to expose our dark side“. This means was the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.
AprilThe campaign to criticize and repudiate Liu Shao-chi‘s revisionist line develops. Publication of articles about the different fronts.
JuneThe Right launches a reversalist wind and creates disturbances.
DecemberBy the end of 1968, power has been reconquered in half of the country.

D. CULMINATION OF THE CONQUEST OF POWER
EXPULSION OF LIU SHAO-CHI
SYSTEMATIZATION OF THE GREAT PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION

1968Continuation of the campaign to criticize and repudiate and unfolding of struggle-criticism-transformation on the national level. The working class enters to direct the educational centers.
AprilReversalist wind against the verdicts on the counter-current.
SeptemberConclusion of the conquest of power with the establishment of the revolutionary committees of Tibet and Sinkiang.
OctoberThe 12th Plenum of the Central Committee expels Liu Shao-chi from the Communist Party of China forever.
1969
AprilThe 9th Congress of the Communist Party of China systematizes the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and celebrates the great victory obtained over Liu Shao-chi‘s revisionist and counterrevolutionary line. Mao Tse-tung thought is declared the marxism-leninism of the current epoch.

E. CONTINUATION OF THE GREAT PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION

1969Struggle against the anti-Party Lin Piao group.
AprilLin Piao in collusion with Chen Po-ta elaborate a draft political report to the 9th Congress, where they deny that the main contradiction is between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, and promote the theory of the productive forces.
1970In August, at the 2nd Plenum of the 9th Central Committee, the anti-Party group mounts an aborted State coup.
1971This group unleashed an armed counterrevolutionary State coup with the intention of assassinating Chairman Mao.
197310th Congress of the Communist Party of China, reaffirmed the Party‘s line and signaled the crushing of the Lin Piao anti-Party clique. A struggle against Lin Piao and Confucius begins. The Right however had advanced and regained positions: in this event the sinister Teng Hsiao-ping reappeared.
1975Teng Hsiao-ping, then Prime Minister, starts a reversalist wind in the educational, technological and cultural circles against the justified verdicts of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Initiation of the struggle against this Rightist wind.
1976A strong struggle against the Rightist reversalist wind.
AprilCounterrevolutionary incident at Tien An Men Square. The Central Committee expels Teng Hsiao-ping. Struggle against Teng Hsiao-ping‘s general programme.
May10th anniversary of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.
SeptemberDeath of Chairman Mao Tse-tung.
OctoberAnti-communist coup of Hua Kuo-feng.

October 1977

CENTRAL COMMITTEE
COMMUNIST PARTY OF PERU