Proletarians of all countries, unite!
There is one goal, the conquest of power!
NOTES FOR A SEMINAR ON PHILOSOPHY
Translated and reproduced by The Red Flag
NOTES FOR A SEMINAR ON PHILOSOPHY
Friedrich Engels: Introduction to „Dialectics of Nature“, 1883.
Friedrich Engels: „The Origins of the Family, Private Property and the State“, 1884.
Friedrich Engels: „The Part Played by Labor in the Transition from Ape to Man“,
V. I. Lenin: „Karl Marx“, 1813.
Many have argued that what forms the mind of man is mathematics, but it is no longer possible to think like that. Logic is another thing. Neither mathematics nor logic are systems that form the mind of man. It is philosophy, process of knowledge through different stages and modes of production.
Lenin came to establish that philosophy was an eminently political necessity. „The core of ideology is philosophy.“ Lenin undertook to study the whole process of philosophy from the Marxist point of view. He studied Hegel‘s „The Science of Logic“.
V. I. Lenin: „Philosophical Notebooks“, 1915.
Mao Tse-tung: „On Practice“, July 1937.
Mao Tse-tung: „On Contradiction“, August 1937.
Without philosophy, there can be no Party.
2. PROCESS OF PHILOSOPHY
Discard the criterion that philosophy is only going to be given from the Greek world. Subsequent studies show that this is a prejudice, contempt for the thought of other peoples. Process in China, India. As civilization progresses, the peoples strive to know the background of things, the why of things, Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Hebrew people, where there is a process of development, it is still considered a pre-philosophy. The process of development from the earliest times is denied. The own religions: the Egyptians state that the waters are the primordial principle, a symbol of life, but they do not know where the Nile comes from, the Nile when expanding leaves some islands and in them the spirit develops. They raise two questions: Spirit and Matter. The important thing is that they always raised a principle which is matter.
The Greeks are the ones who present us with a more developed philosophy, linked to the market process, the appearance of currency and linked to science. Thales predicts the first eclipse. The Egyptians knew mathematical matters by practice, it is the Greeks who explain and demonstrate the facts. Advances in scientific knowledge and the class struggle of the slave-owners, the of the slaveholders, aggravation of the struggle between merchants and farmers: Greek democracy which has a dictatorial process before democracy. We are made to see that philosophy is philosophy is developed at the margin of the classes, 7th and 6th Centuries B.C.
A. THE MATERIALIST SCHOOL
Thales of Miletus (c. 624/623 – c. 548/545 B.C.).
Origin, the why of things is the origin: the beginning of things is the waters, it is the law things are the waters, it is the law from which everything derives. Original chaos and order in things. This was already had already been said by the Egyptians. Thales made inquiries and found in the islands shells (fossils). Another thinker will say that the origin is the air, always a material origin. Heraclitus: he states that the origin of the things is the fire, previous: material reality are therefore materialists. War is the origin of all things, the struggle of two opposites and from that struggle we have a constant process of development, everything is in permanent development, everything is a permanent discourse, nobody bathes twice in the same waters. Here we have dialectics. Genius intuitions. Of them we only have phrases left, nothing more. Aristotle wrote the history of all this. Non-fundamental genial intuitions. The contradiction of philosophy is against religion. It breaks away from religion. Idealism appears. Parmenides denies dialectics, emerges as a counterposition to Heraclitus: it has two heads, one affirms, the other denies, it does not reason. He states that the origin of all things is being: it is the absolute being, it encompasses everything, things exist because they participate in being.
Being has no movement, if it were to move it would be non-being. Men at that time could not refute him.
Materialism starts from the previous matter and from a process of knowledge. The first are the materialists, the idealists are latter.
Democritus (c. 460 – c. 370 B.C.).
A great materialist. Theory of atoms: that which cannot be split. A minimal material instance. All that exists are small particles that cannot be split, eternal and in continuous movement. Thus he refutes the theories of the idealists of Parmenides of the infinite divisibility that would lead to non-existence. It is not until 1900 that the indivisibility of the atom is disproven.
Knowledge is a reflection of the atoms in the head. The effluvia intertwine and this is reflected in our head, hence we have the error. He states that man develops socially. Integral part of the Polis. Reflects what is seen in his own city. Slavery is harmful because it demeans man, because it debases the human being, it does not allow him to give the best of himself, it is freedom that corresponds. Man must be free, he enters the field of morality, he would know that it would allow him to live freely. The greatest exponent of materialism in antiquity.
Materialism has always developed with an understanding and respect for man. His thought was harmful to society and the criteria of the ruling class, all idealist criteria are tied to merchants and slaveholders. The sophists propose that man can be educated and thus elevate himself. Man is the measure of all things. In Socrates we see how the Greeks were highly social, individualism was not developed.
Plato (428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 B.C.).
Linked to the aristocracy, very wealthy, systematizes all idealist thought. He maintains that there is a form and an essence, that the senses are deceptive, that form is idea and the world is matter:
The essence of things participates in ideas. He posits a trinity of the ideas: good, beauty, truth, and these three are sustained by being. Theory of the co-participation of ideas. It raises the Platonic communism that has an antecedent in Egypt which is a reactionary communism. He understands that property generates struggles. For him the democratic order was harmful, he thought of a government of elites. Education for him was harmful. He understood it because the aristocracy was being attacked, destroyed by the merchants. Society: set of workers as those who are educated are selected, workers, warriors, etc. And there remains a set of elites (fascism) to prevent corruption. He destroyed everything from Democritus that came within his reach.
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.).
Disciple of Plato. He has informed us of all that the materialists thought, criticizes Plato and will rely heavily on scientific and social knowledge of the time. Aristotle was based on scientific knowledge, criticizes Plato:
Things exist but they have a material reality and a form, if they did not have the form then they would be confused. Things exist because they have a materiality and a form. He arrives to idealism from a real basis, he has put the idea into reality. He begins to handle concepts and forms concepts and forms, essence: a substance and an essence, there is a primary reality, a higher essence that imprints the superior essence that imprints the movement, because there is a mobile prime mover, God, the word that knows itself. He arrives at idealism from a knot of arteries. Things really exist, they cannot be denied, but he arrives at the thought that thinks itself, and this thinking of itself is what has set reality in motion.
As a concrete reality, matter has no movement; it is the idea that moves, first and foremost the motive force (prime mover). Conceptual dialectic. The positive thing it has is that matter exists. It is another form of Platonism.
The Romans could never overcome it, Neoplatonism as a decadence that reaches mysticism (Plotinus). The Church cannot affiliate with Platonism.
A. THE MIDDLE AGES
Philosophy begins to develop as a vindication of Reason. Apart from the Arabs, it is through them that Greek philosophy begins to be known and Aristotelianism begins to be known. The Arabs came to develop a materialistic criterion, they came to differentiate philosophy from theology. Philosophy deals with the earth and theology with heaven. The Arabs and the Hebrews are the ones who have influences.
Realistists and Nominalists.
Realists apply the Aristotelian thesis, reality of things and ideas also exist independently.
Nominalists are nothing but empty mouths, without real content, they are derivations extracted from things. Those who are confronted are religious ideas. Pedro Abelardo: begins to handle formal logic, creator of deductive logic. He handles logic dialectically (debate, discussion). He is very important for French thought. Attacks religion. Marx considers nominalism to be of great importance. Duns Scotus has much importance, he was a Franciscan. The root of modern materialism is in this character: how to combat religion? Communion.
How many times and how many men receive communion? Then there would be no body of Christ left. All those who opposed were killed, a very violent time, very hard. We want to be philosophers as men of the desk, the reality has not been like that, the stabbing and the poison has been the way of debating in philosophy.
Thomas Aquinas (1225-74).
Thomism (Augustinianism — neoplatonism), Italian who became a Dominican. Disciple of Albertus Magnus: he proposes that it is possible to understand the Catholic religion rationally. Reason is not opposed to theology. It is based on deforming Aristotle, it is not a development of Aristotle, it is much lower. His most important work is „The Being and Reason“ (Bertrand Russell). During his lifetime, he was persecuted by the Church, which is the foundation. Scotus refused Thomism.
B. THE BOURGEOISIE
Francis Bacon (1561-1626).
The philosophical process begins to unfold with the bourgeoisie (Francis Bacon) vindicates experience („new organ“). What he does is to develop an inductive logic that will serve science. He states that his thought embraces the thought of men (he recognizes theology, but apart).
René Descartes (1596-1650).
He was a disciple of the Jesuits. He understood that what was affirmed in one people was that science did not have solid foundations (Cartesian coordinates that allow the geometry of science to be taken to algebraic analysis). He was a student of physics of the world, of matter, what he takes up is the thought of Democritus. He is a materialist in this field. He proposes methodical doubt (it is not skepticism that questions knowledge, he does not trust in knowledge). It is necessary to doubt in order to arrive at an evident knowledge, he raises the deception of sight. The senses deceive, you can not believe in the senses, but there is something that is evident: I cannot doubt that I exist, there is an indubitable truth. I doubt, therefore I exist. Whatever I may present to reality, there is something undeniable. I think, therefore I am. Evident truth before whose existence there is no doubt. I and my thoughts exist. Reality is seen through his thoughts.
I have the ideas, it is because God exists and he is the one who has given everything. Everything exists because God exists. When he develops science he is materialistic, but when he develops metaphysical ideas, he puts the I as the pivot of philosophy. pivot of philosophy the „I“. From here onwards bourgeois thought begins to be founded.
C. GERMAN PHILOSOPHY
Contrary materialist school that takes Democritus.
Leibniz, Kant and Hegel. 17th to 19th Centuries (1830). 150 years more or less. Lutheranism: cleans the stables of the Church.
Germany gives the most advanced thought of the idealist school.
G. W. von Leibniz (1646-1716).
Great mathematician. Develops logic, rethinks Aristotle‘s logic. He did not spread his thoughts. Develops a rationalism. Logical analysis is possible. Logic with symbols to handle it as mathematical analysis. Set of axioms that following a calculation can solve all absolute truths. Theory of monads: closed entities. They communicated through a through a window, ideals, self-motion. Problem of dynamics, but this is conceptual because they are idealistic. Dedicated to analyzing human knowledge, links mathematics and physics.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804).
Focuses on the problem of knowledge. „Critique of Pure Reason“. Proposes that reality exists but as a phenomenon, that which appears. What light shows. Establishes a difference between phenomena. There is a part of things that appears and another, the thing-in-itself, which does not appear. Matter exists but is not known. It establishes a relation between the subject that knows and the object known, but there is a part that is not known. By analyzing things things we have sensations that I grasp through my sensibility. World, Man (soul), God: Complete system of knowledge.
4. ELABORATION OF CONCEPTS
Logical system of knowledge. I only know the phenomena, the thing itself escapes my knowledge. knowledge becomes an elaboration of pure reason, an elaboration between subject and object (things) the subject is the most important. There is a reality that I can know and another that I cannot know. The thing allows itself to be known.
After Kant, neo-Kantianism develops, which dissolves the thing-in-itself, the thing-in-itself is an elaboration of the thing-in-itself. It moves from idealism to ultra-idealism. Kant has has come to know through the understanding. „Critique of Practical Reason“: when he analyzes the soul he comes to think of freedom, and this can only be achieved in God. Freedom, the soul and the the soul and the lap of God. It orders the understanding of knowledge and expresses the limits of idealism (reason). Why does it arise that God exists? Because in order to explain that everything has a beginning and an end, cause is sought, and this cause is God, but when it is stated that God is the cause, what is the cause of God? He himself refutes the existence of God.
G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831).
He asks himself what the prior is. What Kant pretends is to know reality from his „I“, he does not focus on the objective. The problem is to start from the objective, he analyzes the process of philosophy, he thought that all philosophers were prior to him. All other peoples did not exist for him, they were nothing. He developed a theory of dialectics that allowed the understanding of the whole process of matter (his problem was that it was idealist). The process unfolds by contradiction and as it unfolds, its unraveling generates the problem of quantity and quality, form-essence. He understood the dialectic as a process of contradiction between concepts, ideas. He will deny the application of his own dialectic. He posits that there is an absolute great Idea. That great Idea is the objective reality, whose process is contradiction at the level of ideas only. Very similar to Aristotle, but without starting from matter. This Idea judged by the very process of contradiction to matter. Being the spirit itself begins to unfold until it generates man and the spirit becomes self-consciousness, the spirit has denied itself. Man: society, knowledge, science, art, religion, nation and then generates State. The State becomes a great transformation which then finally becomes Spirit, God. Absolute Idea:
It has an understanding of all materialistic development but is idealistic. Two parts: idealism, disposable, and materialism, assumable.
5. DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM
A. BEFORE MARX AND ENGELS
Denis Diderot (1713-84).
Dialectical process in France. Eternal matter, it has no beginning and no end, he goes so far as to posit that there is an internal self-movement that drives matter, but does not explain why.
Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-72).
But the antecedent of Marxist philosophy is classical German philosophy. After Hegel’s death there is some begin to criticize Hegel‘s idealism, the one that interests us is Feuerbach, he criticizes Hegel’s idealism but does not differentiate materialism from Hegel‘s idealism. This leads him to discard Hegel. Phenomenon of alienation in the face of religion (alienation, a word from Hegel, it is not a thesis from Marx) differentiate the young Marx from the old Marx. Marx discards it because the solution is revolution, emancipation.
Hegel: Work extracts man from his essence of thinking being, of national being.
Marx analyzes the causes of alienation.
Feuerbach states that in the face of alienation the center is man, not God. The relationship is love, charity, to care for the other, motherhood, a subjectivist position, how one self relates to another self. Christianity without Christ. What is important is the materialist critique.
B. MARX AND ENGELS
Marx and Engels lead to a struggle against Feuerbach‘s individualism.
Marx and Engels are going to develop the Marxist philosophical process. Marx developed and Engels disseminated. The theses on Feuerbach constitute the basis:
1. Defect of all previous materialism: Not having taken practice into account. The previous materialism had developed in empiricism or seeing reality as something passive, not understanding how matter acts and how man, through his work, changes reality (grasp of reality). All empiricism is a bourgeois position. Marx postulates: to understand reality and transform it.
2. Practice and truth: Practice is the criterion of truth. Marx criticizes Feuerbach, who never conceived of sensory knowledge as a transformative capacity. He had diluted the religious essence into the human essence, a Christianity without Christ, the inability to understand the social world, social relations.
3.Social life is essentially practical: The human mind is led astray by a set of mysticisms. Only by understanding practice can mysticism be swept away. Since Feuerbach does not understand practice he calls it contemplative materialism. Civil society: the maximum that advanced was the study of institutions, which is the root that sustains it. Transforming the world: The philosophers have done nothing more than contemplate the world, but the problem is to transform it.
With this document Marx demarcates the fields.
Settling accounts with their previous thoughts in a new position. New criteria to form the new ideology. The economic process of society. Communism is proposed as the first great revolution in the world, since all the previous ones were the substitution of one class for another.
All philosophy in its long journey had developed a theory on dialectics, as well as on materialism. They justly criticize the Middle Ages. A dispute that wanted to resolve questions without looking at reality. They saw well the milestones of development. They affirm their resounding materialist position. The access to materialism demands as a process in movement derived from contradiction.
Louis Althusser (1918-90).
Althusser denies that Marx and Engels have taken Hegel‘s dialectic. He argues that first, the discovery of Marx and Engels is historical materialism because the historical materialism is founded. historical materialism because the materialist theory of history is founded and then dialectical materialism. dialectical materialism. According to him the development of Marxist philosophy was pending. It is a stupidity from beginning to end.
Plato and Kant are idealists. They denies the scientific process that has been developing since the 17th Century. Since the end of the 16th Century, it was thought that the Earth was something that changes, a form of dialectical process. Chemistry: there is no Chinese wall between organic and inorganic chemistry. Biology: the cell is discovered, in animals transitional forms are seen: as links. Theory of evolution. Thus science breaks with metaphysics as processes, developments. This cannot be denied by Althusser. Thus science demanded a dialectical explanation. Hegel had put the dialectical process in the head. What Marx does is to put it in matter. Before this was never done. Dialectical materialism is able to enter into knowledge and transformation by man acting in matter. The scientific character of Marxism is questioned, matter is transformed through practice.
The ideology generated by the exploiting classes is inverted because it gives an idealistic explanation of history. Our ideology is scientific because it is a true reflection of its practice and its class character. Althusser‘s theories lead to a new surrealism, and what is is to fuse Kantian theory and Spinoza‘s theory. It takes a bourgeois rationalism and a bourgeois idealism. This process has a trajectory of 2.500 years, it has a solid historical foundation in what has been historical foundation in which the best has been gathered and results in Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. The application of dialectical materialism gives rise to historical materialism and the scientific understanding of society.
There has been a process to demonstrate the economic foundations of society. „What Marxism does is to criticize society economically“, say those who attack it. The economic and social basis generates ideology. The problem of ideas and the action that sustains them has not been left.
Engels is the one who deals with this question: three laws. Unity and struggle of contradiction, the leap and the negation of the negation. They understood that the first one was the main one. If they had not understood dialectics they would not have been able to develop „Capital“. No, Marxism is a dialectical process that will continue to develop. It demarcates us with all philosophical processes that are closed.
Hegel is inconsistently dialectical and we are consistently dialectical. This is the greatest revolution in the history of mankind. Marxist philosophy lays the foundations of development, knowledge can never be exhausted, it is a process that goes closer and closer to the truth and discarding new errors.
C. DENIALS OF MARXISM AND SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES
This phenomenon has been constant. In „Materialism and Empirio-Criticism“, Lenin defends Marxism and defends Marxism and develops it. Theory of reflexes. Set of reflexes that generate the consciousness. Reflex is a characteristic that is a characteristic of matter, action and reaction. reaction. Consciousness becomes a long process of the characteristic of matter. The atoms. In the year 1900 a German physicist proposes that there is a very small quantity of matter necessary to make a leap, theory of the quanta, with this opens the nuclear theory.
Einstein makes a new theory of space-time. Newton: There are two absolutes as inseparable entities, what he posits is that space and time are relative. Experiments showed that at high velocities there was a reduction. The problem is that time and space vary according to the velocity, two absolutes become two relatives. Gravity, two matters moving in broader directions. Quantum physics that break the atom, deny matter, Lenin says we are beginning to know the first particles. Matter in motion has quantitative and qualitative form, we are seeing new forms of matter because matter is in eternal motion. Lenin rejects that matter no longer exists.
The partisan character of philosophy and the struggle against Empirio-Criticism.
Quantum physics is going to give room for the denial of materialism. If we know the speed of the electron we do not know its location, and causality is thus denied: causality has two meanings, one expresses the correlation between a cause and an effect, the other is the problem of predictability. Cause-effect has been confused with predictability, but cause-effect still exists. By based on predictability, they deny the former. So what we have found is chance and what has been discovered is another form of matter. New modalities of matter, new forms.
Two parallel lines meet on the inner side add up to less than two straight lines. V. Postulate. Presuppositions. Geometry of parallel lines. (Triangle) 180º, for many centuries this was considered to be the only geometry.
Gauss stated that it has no proof, whoever changes this postulate generates another geometry. When the concave comes, they find that it is inadequate. Reaffirm geometry. 180º latbochesky-bauyeic geometry. (Drawing).
Before we spoke of a flat space, another curved and another concave. Thus the matter has many manifestations. Convex, flat, concave? (develop in the future).
Instead of questioning what they do is to confirm. Matter is inexhaustible. How many processes will be developing. Eternity of matter in eternal motion (understand with the least possible problem). possible). Nowadays matter is conceived as an interruption of vacuum. And what is vacuum? Separate space from matter. A vacuum is a space, and a space is a modality of matter.
It is discovered that there are stars that move at great speeds: the so-called expansion of the universe. expansion of the universe, they reach the point concentration of the universe. This, they say, demonstrates that there has been a beginning, therefore it is not eternal, second, it has a limit. They say that before the universe did not exist, initial moment of creation. This comes from the fact that the environment we know is 15.000.000.000 years old. Others go so far as to say that it is 6.000.000.000 years old. The facts demonstrate that the part that we know has begun in those dates more or less. What is being done is to generalize what little we know. What is valid for one part is not valid for the whole. A part cannot replace the whole. It is intended (Russell) to introduce God through the back door.
Movement has a quantitative and a qualitative facet. Bourgeois philosophy enters a process of clear decadence. Lukacs argues that the contradiction is not materialism-idealism, but irrationalism-rationalism. That it poses an acute crisis of bourgeois philosophy.
Develops a metaphysics full of lachrymogeny.
Theory of the superman, an extraordinary pen. Theories seeking a way out of imperialism. Moral theory based on the best and their domination. Privileged men and lazy minds, points against Christianity, trying to reestablish the morality of the lords. Christianity confuses goodness with virtue. Christians are the most powerful, the strongest. This is pure racism.
In the 1920s, empirio-criticism tries to be re-launched. Neopositivism: it arises in Vienna circles: positivism, a reactionary positivism, reactionary response of the big bourgeoisie. It raises the need to believe in positive science, denies the existence of science, denies the existence of laws in reality and states that reality is things that we elaborate, knowledge. The new science is a religiosity, the best world is the bourgeois and the bourgeois world and the problem is order and progress.
Neopositivistm: it starts from phenomena, it leads to scientism. It is the subject that elaborates a system of science, law, falls into a development of logic.
Elaborate systems derived from science, mathematicism.
Pythagoras: he stated that the essence of things was the number, that everything could be measured, Plato develops it. All knowledge is reduced to formulas. The bad thing is to substitute reality for formulas, the fact is that mathematics comes out of material reality, the circle came out of the wheel; to consider mathematics to substitute reality (make a hole in the wall with an integral and not with what the integral represents — a drill).
They begin to analyze, they state that language is insufficient and that it is necessary to replace it with symbols, in order to arrive at something, everything must be simplified. It is positive in the sense that it gives us a development of logic, as symbolic logic. They speak of criteria of verification, proof of truth. One ends up not analyzing the matter, but the analyses of matter (logical analysis).
The most consistent of the neopositivists. „I cannot speak about the world, I can be I can be asked how I interpret the world, the world is not knowable, what can be spoken of is the knowledge that one has of the world. I cannot talk about the world, I can’t talk about the other systems because I don’t know them, the best thing to do is to keep quiet, you can’t say anything about anything. nothing can be said about anything. One reaches the ineffable. Silence. Divinity, one has reached the limit of contemplate.“ God in sight. Scientists and analysis of science, logicism. Absolute denial of knowledge. knowledge. Bertrand Russell. Cameades in antiquity, Nunme and Rosses, their analyses lead to the undoing of knowledge.
Everyone arrives at agnosticism. Principia mathematics. Creators of modern logic. Platonic mathematicism, logicist, Platonic planomysticism. is not valid and „what I am saying now, I do not know if it will be valid“.
Analysis and Synthesis.
Analysis, they remain in the disassembly and do not manage to assemble it, they do not make the synthesis. However, they discover paradoxes that allow us to advance, when we think we are thinking in finite terms and they have been cleaning up finite terms and they have been cleaning up philosophy and science. Knowledge has entered a critical moment, a moment of synthesis is produced, and again they began to expand. Demolition of the concepts of science, everything has entered into crisis. The proletariat is going to establish these new principles. The process of demolition is not over. There is a class that is dying and its principles are dying with it. The bewilderment is a decantation.
Heidegger. 1920. Analysis of existence, the creator God. Philosophy must focus on the existence of things. Man is the expression of existence, he comes from nothingness and goes to nothingness. He knows nothing of his existence, of where he comes from. He is in transit. When this happens, there are two attitudes: to face or to flee from this anguish. The problem is to face his anguish, to face his death, to be for death, that is the identity of man, to live for death. It served Nazism, it is the expression of a class that is dying, agonizing. Expression of philosophical decadence.
Sartre: he is of the same school. Man is a being without existence and seeks existence and seeks to cling to something to express his existence. to cling to something to express his existence, man reduces everything to nothing, he seeks to cling to things, but that is a false start. to things, but that is a false start, in another human being, the one to the other becomes nothingness (void). Another way out is love, but it is the same situation, then God remains, but God does not exist. Then remains his own freedom, this is the solution. He has only the alternative of living or dying. Pessimism, with no way out, freedom is a correlation that occurs in society.
Marcel: man comes from God and goes to God, the problem then is to reach God. All are expressions of the class that has no way out.
Neothomism: Maritain. The church remains in Thomism. Catholic thinkers have thought to adjust Thomism taking into account the development of science in philosophy. The fact of wanting to take a feudal world outlook shows the ideological poverty of the Church. It is born dead because it is a philosophy that is already dead. Husserl’s successors: application of Deconte. Phenomenology. Tries to overcome the errors of Deconte. García Baca. García Morente, of the school of neothomism. Chairman Mao said that one cannot be vaccinated against idealism if one does not know it.
The main law.
Plekhanov argued that Marxism posed monism. Materialism is the basis, the guide is dialectics and of this the main thing is contradiction. Marx and Engels do not go so far as to state what the main thing is. With Stalin there is a regression. Chairman Mao states that the only law is contradiction and the others are derivations. With Chairman Mao we arrive at philosophical monism; the only law. This does not imply that the system has been concluded. Questions concerning freedom, on the one hand it is consciousness of the need and the other aspect is transformation of the necessity, and this is the main one. Dialectic: the most general laws of the development of the natural world, of the social world and of knowledge. knowledge, understanding as such the reflection of material reality in the mind of man. The difficulty would be in the laws. It is Chairman Mao who proposes a single law, considering the law of contradiction as the only law.
Plekhanov: he proposes monism, although he starts from the laws and classes, he also takes into account the individual because he can disturb it. Assume the law and carry it forward, in the purest form and fulfill the role that the revolution demands. There are particularities, but the main thing is that they assume the law and carry it forward. Marxism-Leninism-Maoism combats individualism and its root, selfishness, to fight the „I“ first. The individual historically develops, private property potentiated individuality and selfishness, the bourgeoisie potentiates individualism to the maximum to the point of excessive individualism. Marxism, centering on the class, rejects individualism and selfishness, in the Chairman is where it imprints us a new way of being, it shapes us. The action itself in the class struggle is the main one, working collectively dilutes the education we were given.
By making the revolution, the world is transformed and so are men. The root is selfishness and is a basis of revisionism and requires time. Uprooting individualism will be a long process. By generating new and more developed relations of production it will be reflected more and more in the ideas throughout society.
We Communists must be trumpets that announce the future. Ideology allows us to develop and advance in the struggle against selfishness. We must be the most advanced. We work for a goal that we will not see. To reduce more and more individualism and selfishness. It is in the struggle where action hits individualism the hardest. Ideology is what allows us to move forward.
Lima, March-April 1987