Communiqué of the 10th Plenum of the 8th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

Proletarians of all countries, unite!
There is one goal, the conquest of power!

COMMUNIQUÉ OF THE 10TH PLENUM OF THE 8TH CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA

Central Committee
Communist Party of China
28.09.1962

Peking Review
No. 39 of 1962
Reproduced by
The Red Flag

COMMUNIQUÉ OF THE 10TH PLENUM OF THE 8TH CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA

The 8th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held its 10th Plenum in Peking, September 24th to 27th, 1962.

The 10th Plenum was presided over by Chairman Mao Tse-tung. 82 members and 88 alternate members of the Central Committee attended. 33 other comrades from the departments concerned of the Central Committee and from the provincial, municipal and autonomous region Party committees were also present.

1. CONSOLIDATING THE COLLECTIVE ECONOMY OF THE PEOPLE‘S COMMUNES

The 10th Plenum discussed and took decisions on the question of further consolidating the collective economy of the people‘s communes and developing agricultural production and on the question of commercial work. It made a decision on the planned interchange of important directors of Party and government organizations at various levels. It decided to strengthen the work of the Party control commissions at all levels and elected additional members to the Central Control Commission. It elected Comrades Lu Ting-yi, Kang Sheng and Lo Jui-ching as additional members of the Secretariat of the Central Committee, and at the same time decided to dismiss Comrades Huang Ke-cheng and Tan Cheng from their posts as members of the Secretariat.

The 10th Plenum discussed the international and domestic situation.

The session points out that the international situation is developing in a direction even more favorable to the people of all countries. The struggle of the people of the world against the U.S. imperialist policies of aggression and war and against colonialism, old and new, is surging forward. The Cuban people, after winning victory in their revolution, have embarked on the road of socialism and have continually defeated the U.S. imperialists‘ aggressive schemes. The Algerian people have attained independence through protracted armed struggle. In Laos, armistice has been realized and a provisional coalition government has been formed. The people in Southern Vietnam have won one victory after another in their patriotic armed struggle. The Indonesian people have waged a successful struggle for the recovery of West Irian. The Japanese people have conducted continued heroic struggles against U.S. imperialist aggression and oppression. All these are important landmarks in the vigorous development of the national and democratic movements of the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America. The struggles of the oppressed nations and peoples of the world for national independence, democracy and socialism are playing an ever greater role in the defense of world peace. The growing strength of the countries in the socialist camp and their unity based on marxism-leninism and internationalism constitute the decisive factor in defending world peace and give an extremely important encouragement and support to the liberation struggle of the people of various countries.

The U.S. imperialists are redoubling their efforts to push through their plans of aggression and war which are aimed at attaining world hegemony, the reactionaries of various countries are serving imperialism in a less disguised way, and the modern revisionists represented by the Tito clique have become more despicable in betraying the cause of communism and meeting the needs of imperialism. All this shows that the class struggle is raging in the international sphere.

The imperialists, the reactionaries of various countries and the modern revisionists have engaged in all kinds of criminal activities to oppose communism, oppose the people, oppose the mass struggle of all oppressed nations and oppose the People‘s Republic of China and all other independent countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and elsewhere, which refuse to be slaves, but the result is contrary to their expectations. Their criminal activities have only served to further reveal their ugly features and land them in greater isolation. Although the struggle against the imperialists, the reactionaries of various countries and the modern revisionists is protracted, tortuous and complicated, the revolutionary cause of the people of all countries continues to develop, the international communist movement is growing daily in strength, and our friends have become more numerous.

2. THE GENERAL LINE OF CHINA‘S FOREIGN POLICY

The 10th Plenum holds that the development of the international situation has proved more convincingly that the general line of our country‘s foreign policy is entirely correct. This general line is: to develop relations of friendship, mutual assistance and cooperation with the Soviet Union and other fraternal socialist countries in accordance with the principle of proletarian internationalism; to strive for peaceful coexistence on the basis of the „Five Principles“ with countries having differing social systems and oppose the imperialist policies of aggression and war; to support the revolutionary struggles of the oppressed peoples and oppressed nations against imperialism and colonialism. We should continue to carry out this general line in international affairs in the future.

We should continue to hold high the banner of opposing imperialism and defending world peace and unite all the peace-loving countries and people of the world to form the broadest possible united front against U.S. and other imperialists and their running dogs in various countries.

We should continue to hold high the banner of revolution and give active support to the liberation struggle of the peoples of various countries, especially the struggle of the Asian, African and Latin American peoples for winning and safeguarding their national independence.

We should continue to hold high the banner of proletarian internationalism and strive to safeguard and strengthen the unity of the socialist camp and the international communist movement.

3. HOLDING HIGH THE BANNER OF MARXISM-LENINISM

We should continue to hold high the revolutionary banner of marxism-leninism, uphold the revolutionary principles of the 1957 Moscow Declaration and the 1960 Moscow Statement and resolutely and thoroughly oppose modern revisionism — the main danger in the international communist movement. This is our main task at present and for a long time to come. At the same time we should resolutely and thoroughly oppose dogmatism, oppose sectarianism and oppose great-nation chauvinism and narrow nationalism. This is also a long-term task. The purpose of all this is to safeguard the purity of marxism-leninism.

The 10th Plenum notes with satisfaction that since the 9th Plenum held in 1961, and particularly since the beginning of this year, the work done by the whole Party in implementing the policy of readjustment, consolidation, filling out and raising the agricultural front has yielded remarkable results. Despite the serious natural disasters for several consecutive years and the shortcomings and mistakes in the work, the condition of the domestic economy last year was slightly better than the year before, and this year it is again slightly better than that of last year.

In agriculture, the actual harvest of summer crops this year has shown a slight gain over that of last year, and the yield of autumn crops is also expected to register an increase. This is the result of carrying through the Party‘s series of policies concerning the rural people‘s communes and thus giving play to the advantages of the collective economy of the people‘s communes.

In industry, positive results have been achieved through the adoption of effective measures of readjustment. The output of means of production in support of agriculture, light industrial products using industrial products as raw materials, many handicrafts and some badly needed heavy industrial products has registered a considerable increase during the January-August period as compared with the corresponding period of last year. Many enterprises have improved their management, their products are of a higher quality and cover a greater range, their production costs have been cut down and their labor productivity has been raised.

In the field of commerce there are also new improvements and supply of commodities is slightly better than before.

All this shows that both in town and countryside, our economic conditions are getting better and better with each passing day.

It should be pointed out that some of our work is not well done. For instance, because of the incompetence of the directors, some production teams, some factories and some business establishments have produced less or become unwelcome to the masses. We should endeavor to change this state of affairs and improve the work of those units without delay.

The people of our country have always united closely around the Central Committee of the Party and Chairman Mao Tse-tung. Even when confronted with serious difficulties at home and abroad, the broadest masses and cadres of our country have always firmly believed in the correctness of the general line for socialist construction, the Great Leap Forward and the people‘s commune — the „Three Red Banners“. Giving full play to the glorious tradition of working hard and building the country with dilligence and thrift, and to the militant spirit of relying on our own efforts and working with vigor for the country‘s prosperity, they have actively grappled with the difficulties and scored brilliant achievements under the directorship of the Party and the People‘s Government.

The Chinese People‘s Liberation Army and the Public Security Forces are strong and reliable armed forces of the people. Our country has also a heroic militia force of vast numbers. They have performed well their glorious task of defending the homeland, the people‘s labor and the socialist system. At all times they are vigilantly guarding the frontiers of our great homeland and protecting public order and stand ready to smash the aggressive and sabotage activities of any enemy.

4. TESTED IN STRUGGLE

Tested in all these struggles, our country is worthy of being called a great country, our people a great people, our armed forces great armed forces, and our Party a great Party.

The imperialists, the reactionaries of various countries and the modern revisionists gloated over the temporary difficulties encountered by the Chinese people, and they wantonly vilified China‘s general line for socialist construction, the Great Leap Forward and the people‘s commune, striking up an anti-Chinese chorus which was sensational for a time. U.S. imperialism instigated the Chiang Kai-shek gang entrenched in Taiwan to plot vainly an invasion of the coastal areas of the mainland. At home, those landlords, rich peasants and bourgeois Rightists who have not reformed themselves and the remnant counter-revolutionaries also gloated over our difficulties and tried to take advantage of the situation. But the imperialists and their running dogs in China and abroad completely miscalculated. All their criminal activities have not only further exposed their hideous features but have heightened the socialist and patriotic fervor of our people in working vigorously for the prosperity of our country. Our people have resolutely smashed and will continue to smash every one of their scheming activities, be it intrusion, provocation or aggression, or subversion within our State or our Party.

The 10th Plenum of the 8th Central Committee points out that throughout the historical period of proletarian revolution and proletarian dictatorship, throughout the historical period of transition from capitalism to communism (which will last scores of years or even longer), there is class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie and struggle between the socialist road and the capitalist road. The reactionary ruling classes which have been overthrown are not reconciled to their doom. They always attempt to stage a comeback. Meanwhile, there still exist in society bourgeois influence, the force of habit of old society and the spontaneous tendency towards capitalism among part of the small producers. Therefore, among the people, a small number of persons, making up only a tiny fraction of the total population, who have not yet undergone socialist remolding, always attempt to depart from the socialist road and turn to the capitalist road whenever there is an opportunity. Class struggle is inevitable under these circumstances. This is a law of history which has long been elucidated by marxism-leninism. We must never forget it. This class struggle is complicated, tortuous, with ups and downs and sometimes it is very sharp. This class struggle inevitably finds expression within the Party. Pressure from foreign imperialism and the existence of bourgeois influence at home constitute the social source of revisionist ideas in the Party. While waging a struggle against the foreign and domestic class enemies, we must remain vigilant and resolutely oppose in good time various opportunist ideological tendencies in the Party. The great historical significance of the 8th Plenum of the 8th Central Committee held in Lushan in August 1959 lies in the fact that it victoriously smashed attacks by Right-opportunism, that is, revisionism, and safeguarded the Party line and the unity of the Party. Both at present and in the future, our Party must sharpen its vigilance and correctly wage a struggle on two fronts, against revisionism and against dogmatism. Only thus can the purity of marxism-leninism be always preserved, the unity of the Party constantly strengthened and the fighting power of the Party continuously increased.

5. THE URGENT TASK

The 10th Plenum holds that the urgent task facing the people of our country at present is to carry through the general policy of developing the domestic economy with agriculture as the foundation and industry the leading factor, as put forward by Chairman Mao Tse-tung, attach first importance to the development of agriculture, correctly handle the relationship between industry and agriculture and resolutely readjust the work of the industrial departments according to the policy of making agriculture the foundation of the domestic economy.

In the field of agriculture, it is necessary to continue to carry out the Central Committee‘s various policies concerning the people‘s communes, consolidate still further the collective economy, bring the peasants‘ enthusiasm for collective production into still greater play, give priority to the development of grain production and at the same time strive to develop cotton, oil-bearing and other industrial crops as well as livestock breeding, aquatic production, forestry and side-occupations. Meanwhile, it is necessary to mobilize and concentrate the strength of the whole Party and the whole nation in an active way to give agriculture and the collective economy of the people‘s communes every possible material, technical and financial aid as well as aid in the fields of directorship and personnel, and to bring about the technical transformation of agriculture, stage by stage and in a manner suited to local conditions.

In the field of industry, the first thing to do is, in accordance with the needs of the technical transformation of agriculture and the present availability of materials and manpower, to further carry out rational readjustment, strengthen the productive capacity of the weaker departments, energetically improve management, increase the variety and raise the quality of products.

In the field of commerce, it is necessary, in accordance with the principle of „ensuring supplies by increasing production“ and the policy of commerce serving agricultural and industrial production and the livelihood of the people and through the channels of State-run commerce, cooperative commerce and village fair trade, to make great efforts to arrange for the interflow of farm produce and manufactured goods between the rural and urban areas, so as to supply the rural areas with more means of production, supplt industry with more materials, and supply the urban and rural people with more daily necessities.

In the fields of science, culture and education, it is necessary to strengthen scientific and technological research in agriculture, vigorously train personnel in these fields, and at the same time strengthen the work of uniting with and educating the intellectuals so that they may fully play their role as they should.

Although we have produced more goods both last year and this year and the living conditions of the people have improved, the goods we produce are still insufficient to meet the needs of the urban and rural people. The whole Party and the whole nation must strive to expand production, ensure the supply of goods and so gradually improve the livelihood of the people. At the same time, the urban and rural inhabitants of the whole country must give attention to diligence and thrift in construction work and housekeeping, practice economy and lay up some savings so that we may gradually be better off and be prepared against the needs caused by natural disasters and other unforeseen events.

The 10th Plenum is firmly convinced that, though certain difficulties still exist, it is entirely possible to overcome them. We have already made great achievements. Our future is bright. Provided the whole Party and the whole country, united as one, strengthen democratic centralism, carry through the general policy of developing the domestic economy with agriculture as the foundation and industry as the leading factor, and further conscientiously carry out the work of readjustment, consolidation, filling out and raising standards in the domestic economy, we will certainly be able, after making efforts for a period of time, to usher in a new period of great upsurge in our country‘s socialist construction.

The 10th Plenum calls on the workers, peasants, intellectuals, democratic parties and patriots of all the nationalities throughout the country to unite even more closely, hold still higher the glorious banners of the general line for socialist construction, the Great Leap Forward and the people‘s commune under the directorship of the Party‘s Central Committee and the leadership of Chairman Mao Tse-tung, go all out in their efforts to increase production and practice economy and strive for a bumper harvest next year, for the new growth of the domestic economy and for new victories in the socialist cause of our country.

28.09.1962
CENTRAL COMMITTEE
COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA