Report to the 3rd Plenary Session of the 1st Central Committee of the Communist Party of Peru

The central report of the 3rd Plenary Session of the 1st Central Committee of the Party.

Proletarians of all countries, unite!


Abimael «Gonzalo» Guzmán
March 1992

Selected Works of Abimael «Gonzalo» Guzmán
Switzerland, 2022

Reproduced by
The Red Flag

The main content of Comrade Gonzalo‘s report to the 3rd Plenary Session of the 1st Central Committee of the Communist Party of Peru. The entire report was published as an official document of the Central Committee of the Party under the title «Central Document».




These are the four points systematically and maliciously attacked by the enemy. Socialism is negated, the dictatorship of the proletariat is attacked, the need for the Party is denied, and the obsolescence of marxism is proclaimed.

We should recall the fourth chapter of «Elections, No! People‘s War, Yes!», which contains lessons and truths of marxism-leninism-maoism, how to uphold our principles, the declaration of our convictions, principles, and great truths. Although the document is good, it has been said that some comrades have shown problems in studying that part. The document spells out the truth.

We must aim to defend socialism, the dictatorship of the proletariat, the Party and marxism, and to uphold the extraordinary transformations and the unique grandeur that socialism, the dictatorship of the proletariat, the Party and marxism have impressed on the Earth in only a few years. It must be made clear that the benefits received by the people and the proletariat were immense, like never before, because before, progress was always for the benefit of small groups. It must be made clear that the temporary disappearance of this socialism and the attacks on the ideology of the class have caused so much harm. But soon the people of the former Soviet Union, China and the world will have realized that what they lost was immense and it will be restored through fire and blood. It was heaven that was lost and we must reconquer it. We must storm heaven again; it is not so complicated.

Mao said: In a few years the world has been transformed like never before; what it took England 250 years to develop as is, it will take China 50 years to do it. Here we see the potential of the relations of production.i

Old tsarist Russia, burdened with centuries of backwardness, with a stifling feudal system that gripped the system from the deepest roots to the highest points, with a brutal, autocratic dictatorship known as the gendarme of Europe, was toppled by the revolution. Centuries of oppression were swept away and in few decades, which reached highest levels of production and provided the basis of what the revisionists have later used and profited to their advantage, a powerful economy and superpower status.

We should look at the five-year plans, which according to non-marxist authors like Bernardii and Coliniii, the Union of Socialist Council Republics in the 1st Five-Year Plan plan from 1928 to 1932 gave priority to the development of heavy industry, the 2nd Five-Year Plan from 1933 to 1937 prioritized the iron and steel industry, and the 3rd Five-Year Plan from 1938 to 1942 focused on the future mechanical industry. With the Nazi attack in 1941 this plan was interrupted. In sum, the Union of Socialist Council Republics did not even complete the 3rd Five-Year Plan. Before 1928 they had taken power and had to complete pending democratic tasks; later on the New Economic Plan was developed, which was a step back necessary in order to maintain the new Council Republic. They had to struggle to stabilize that economy. Therefore, they did not even carry out 15 years of the five-year plans since the planning system began in the late 1920s.

The reactionaries attack the planning system when in reality it was the basis that allows the handling of the economic process serving the interests of the class, exercising its class dictatorship, moving the masses with people capable of managing the society and imposing conditions on the world, planning its laws. That‘s an expression of freedom, not a puppet show. Economic planning permits the strengthening and unfolding of the social character of production, managing to serve the interests of the majority, and this is something that the reactionaries do not like at all. We repeat that economic planning in the Union of Socialist Council Republics begun only in the 1920s since there were serious problems before that period of time. The new State was being born.

The 4th Five-Year Plan plan was from 1946 to 1950, which was formulated to organize the reconstruction; the 5th Plan was from 1951 to 1955, which gave preference to the building of the means of production. Stalin died in 1953. There were five five-year plans, for a period of 25 years, with a world war in which the Soviet Union had 25,000,000 dead and had to apply a scorched earth policy. The force and conditions created in those times allowed a forceful advance and development until the 1960s, and the drove of revisionists could not contain such a powerful force, the momentum and vigor of the forms generated by the new system which continued to express itself. The five-year plan from 1961 to 1965 gave priority to the economic foundations; the plan from 1966 to 1970 and the one from 1971 to 1975 were for the purpose of maintaining the economic foundations.

The 1st Five-Year Plan gave priority to heavy industry, and on this plan Chairman Mao said that Stalin did not know how to manage the system of production very well. He bypassed it and did not allow it to walk on its two feet: agriculture and industry. Nevertheless, despite the errors committed, the momentum of the power of these new social relations created a complete revolution and determined the bases of economic development that met the needs of millions of people.

What system has done anything similar? The United States? This country for example had its umbilical cord tied to England, which was already bourgeois; upon reaching the USA the British did not find a feudal base. How many centuries did they need? More than three centuries, 350 years, which cannot be separated from England. In 30 years, were they able to make a country like the Union of Socialist Council Republics? Were they able to overcome hunger like in China? What can they boast about? Nothing.

A book issued by the World Bankiv analyzes 30 years of development in the backwards countries, it also analyzes England, the USA, Germany, Japan, and China, and says that the one which made the greatest leap in the shortest time to date was China. These are not the laws of Deng Xiaoping, it is the economic development of China based on the accomplishments of the democratic revolution and the foundations created after Liberation in 1949. These statistics demonstrate that the system made an extraordinary leap in the shortest time.


The reactionaries say it is totalitarian: Let us see what Chairman Mao said in «On the People‘s Democratic Dictatorship», and see who benefits the most: the people and the class. Let us sweep away the trifle double talk of «totalitarianism», this old tale they use to confuse the people. Let us show the benefits of socialism, and the advantages the people had. What about the reactionaries, what does the bourgeoisie give to the people?

They proclaim the non-partisanship, which aims to dissolve the politics of the working class, the proletariat, and seek only to keep bourgeois politics. To impose their policies they don‘t even need political parties any longer, see how they kill.v

Our politics require our concerted actions to conquer power.


The bourgeoisie is so decrepit that it does not attack it directly, rather it recycles ideas from two centuries ago, resuscitating ultra-reactionary persons, fools like de Tocqueville,vi a rose-tinted version of the North American bourgeois dictatorship. This is a complete pastime. They say that marxism is obsolete and that it doesn‘t work, but they don‘t attack it openly. When have they found a basis for this? No one has ever proven the obsolescence of marxism. Apprentices and charlatans like Dühringvii and other pack of plunderers of marxism are the ones who have boasted about it.

In synthesis, we must defend marxism, socialism, the dictatorship of the proletariat, the Party, seeing the great things they have generated, whose interests they serve, and counterpose them to the interests served by capitalism, imperialism, the bourgeois dictatorship, the parties. We are not living in ambiguous times. In order for the revolution to advance, it requires struggles with violence for big ruptures. Chairman Mao said that only a great chaos can generate a new order.viii We have had insufficient chaos, we must generate more, do it at the level of ideas. Moving ideas is vital to shape public opinion, without this we cannot conquer power.


Lenin said that Engels sang a panegyric to revolutionary violence; to a marxist, a revolutionary, it is appropriate. Praising pacifism, the false peace of the bayonets, is appropriate for a reactionary. These are two positions, each one has its peace and each one manages its war. In the world there is an unchecked insistence of talking about peace, pacification, dialogue, an unchecked overflow of bourgeois and small-bourgeois ideas of the most uninspiring pacifist positions, a stupid venom to poison the class and the masses. Peace is an end to the Cold War, but the world continues to be rocked by brutal conflicts like Iraq, with weapons not seen until now, except the atomic bomb. We see massacres, the war in Yugoslavia, in the Caucasus, in Ukraine and in Moldavia.

There is a combination of repressed things which are going to burst. Look at the imperialist scramble, the U.S. systematically shouting that it has power, the rest feeling a mortal panic, similar to Khrushchevix who said that if the U.S. and Soviet Union joined forces, if they raised their little finger, the rest of the world would die of fear. Pomellix said that the U.S. is the only one that can rule. The new gendarme can present itself as all-powerful, each day as it relies more and more on nuclear weapons, raising up military and atomic blackmail. They dream of their «Roman peace», but that peace was imposed by legions of iron on the oppressed.

We must unmask this monstrosity, just like we must unmask all that propaganda about pacification which is a closed defense of the exploitative and oppressive order which that pack of imbeciles defends and sustain to defend their daily bread. The question of violence must be made clear, and as a counterpart we have seen the «Outline of the Initiation of the Armed Struggle in 1980», an outline on revolutionary violence.

This is an introduction. We must demonstrate our world outlook, which our line, dictatorship, socialism under the hegemony of marxism gave the greatest thing the Earth has seen, and it was lost by a traitorous revisionism. We must see the process of revolution and counter-revolution; We must not be pessimists, the transitions from one system to another are complex, hard, and brutal.


The Party documents show the basic ideas that need to be developed, we must work on them well since these are the sources that will serve as our basis. In addition, bear in mind the experience of the Party and the experience and lessons to be learned from the work of the communists. Communists do not always have a clear understanding of this process:


We must see Lenin‘s thesis that imperialism is monopolistic, parasitical and moribund, and that it is the last stage, it is like a cancer. We must see Chairman Mao‘s thesis that imperialism is a paper tiger; where is the Soviet Union? It was also a paper tiger. We must understand the law of imperialism and the law of the people. People do not need imperialism, this plague is not needed at all.

One problem is to aim to see how empires collapse and to understand how imperialism and the great empires collapse, the existing States, and see how the Soviet Union burst. This was a social-imperialist power with a mask, and we saw how a giant with feet of clay burst apart. The collapse of systems happens over long periods of time, so this one headed by U.S. imperialism must be understood as an unburied corpse. They have a moment of recuperation before even steeper declines and until their total extinction or crushing. Many years may elapse after they are swept away and reappear in other conditions; Spain, for example, has recovered in the capitalist order but it had collapsed before. It is a long but inevitable agony. We can look into history to understand this process.

The current state of the big imperialists, the current economy of imperialism after the 2nd World War, is undergoing a serious problem. For example, the United States: How can this country use a quarter of its budget to pay the interest on its foreign debt? It is parasitical, and every day more so. It has 4,000,000,000,000 USD domestic debt, 700,000,000,000 USD in foreign debt, and its production is in recession. It has massive unemployment, and millions of people who work only to put the food on the table. It is a rotten giant with feet of clay.

The German economy is trapped in the incorporation of East Germany; it cannot digest what it has swallowed. Japan has serious problems; for example, its finances, severe recession, and investments. It is not the way they portray it.

We must see the unchecked and relentless manner in which they launch their new policy of collusion and contention. The areas of domination and influence frequently intertwine and contentions have already began. Germany and Japan have to militarize rapidly; we said this before and it turned out to be right. The Japanese military budget is increasing. For example, Japan has a minesweeper in the Persian Gulf and it doesn‘t want to withdraw it. Japan is desperate to be recognized as a power, and for this reason it developed great power politics. It is galloping to become a military power and it tangles with other powers and clashes with the oppressed. We see contradictions, powers, superpowers, readjustments, modifications and problems with the third world, which show that the privileges they enjoy are all tinsel and fuss. Their parasitical actions have caused death in Africa and has brutalized people in Asia. Because of the policies of imperialism, there are 15,000,000 children who die each year in the world to the benefit and greed of the big magnates in the U.S. (not the people of the U.S.). We must unmask how vile they are. It is clear how they are sinking in a long death-rattle, in their inevitable death, their thievery, collusion and contention. These are times of great war-like clashes. They stoke nationalism to serve their interests. The scramble for the Caucasus began in Central Asia and extended to Mongolia; but their aim is the third world, which is every day more exploited and oppressed. They achieved some victories with the disintegration of the Soviet Union, proclaiming their «victory» and have presented it as a «revolution», when it was actually the Eastern European counter-revolution. All of this put the ideas of neoliberalism, pragmatism and bourgeois democracy up in the clouds. Their purpose was to secure the greatest exploitation, to devour as rapidly as possible the gains made by those States over decades of this century.

The concentration and dispossession, starting with the movement to expropriate, are in charge of a handful of magnates who seek to impose their bourgeois-democratic system through blood and fire. They developed the great power politics and denied the sovereignty of nations. There is a tendency to collude themselves under the lead of U.S. imperialism to subjugate the oppressed nations. There are clear indications of this policy in Iraq, the threats against North Korea, the aggression against Cuba. What they are scheming will not only be implemented by the USA, but it will involve a group of superpowers and lackeys that seek loot. They will attack Cuba and dream and plot about attacking Korea. They will continue to wage military blackmail against the oppressed nations. But this plundering will generate a reaction. It generates the development of the national struggles. The crisis that grips the imperialist countries will lead to the awakening of the proletariat, which cannot remain as lethargic as in Europe. The problem is that the oppressed nations are the key, the basis, the very foundation of the anti-imperialist struggle.

There is one main problem: revolution is the main historical and political tendency, therefore we must show it. Contradiction unfolds progress, and the majority are for progress, and for achieving basic living conditions and human development in accordance with the advances of the times. Lenin said in 1913 that the masses don‘t want to keep living with conditions that don‘t correspond to that century.xi According to economic overviews of the 1950s and 1975, it was concluded that a fabulous wealth was being generated; there were specific conditions to live better, therefore, then and now the masses cannot coexist in the world in subhuman conditions, in contrast with the colossal wealth and waste of a few.

The world has to advance; progress, development and the revolution are the historical tendency. For this reason the bourgeoisie and small-bourgeois lackeys uphold the negation of progress, development, and advancement. They say that these are erroneous and bourgeois ideas. A bourgeois idea is to believe in progress as «a bourgeois development with the mere passage of time». We conceive progress as a consequence of revolutionary transformation of the class struggle that generates more advanced classes and a more combatant people. History has a tendency that goes toward broader freedom for humanity. This is undeniable, but it is denied claiming these are pseudo-marxist ideas. However, a contradiction between the new and old exists, and this generates the concept that revolution is the main tendency. Let us review the editorial from Beijing Review in May 1976: «The new always triumphs; the struggle between the new and the old is a form of contradiction.» Chairman Mao said that «the future is bright; the road is tortuous». Either this contains a contradiction, a reality, or it is a contrivance of brilliant phrases. Nothing follows a straight path, there are always contradictions. Two things contend and tug, for that reason the path is zigzagged; the flow of the rivers whether turbulent or laminar goes through nooks and whirlpools; it overcomes them and reaches the sea. These are material realities; flows and rivers are matter.

We must see how in the development of our people, they were exterminated from more than 10,000,000 to 2,000,000.xii Now we have grown and the entire country is mixed-race. Historically and politically, revolution is the main tendency, the other tendency is a temporary reversal. When there are problems, pessimism is generated, people say «so much struggle and for what?», but what has been done is never lost.

There is contention between the positive and negative, because the new is superior, it imposes itself. We must see the contradiction, the history, the interests of the masses which will define their future, the socialist future, not one shackled to a master, to imperialism. We must see and understand what the masses want. Their socialist future or their survival under a imperialist. To see what the masses want, we must define their historical and political consciousness.


Revisionism entered into bankruptcy without a war, the old revisionism went bankrupt with the war, while the second revisionism came from Khrushchev. It was bankrupt and its regimes were disintegrated. We must link the process of socialism‘s regression, and then the triumph of revolution, with revisionism. The revisionists are the vanguard of restoration. The revisionists are responsible for it. Socialism did not fail, what has failed was the abandonment of the socialist principles by a revisionist clique in order to adjust it to the old imperialist world order. They have disintegrated their system to be part of the imperialist world order.

We must see the historical period of the struggle against U.S. imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism. We must study whether it is changing or ending. One of the superpowers is disintegrating. It is becoming disarticulated, and its economic system is being scattered. Its system of semi-colonies is scattering, but it has not completely ended. One of them is dissolving and the other has serious problems and is following the politics of a «lord» based on military power, however, there are others that are stronger and more aggressive, and they are preparing their assault.

The document «May the Strategic Stalemate Shake the Country More!» says: «In perspective, the main enemy is the USA.»xiii This means that another enemy will come ( it says «mainly the USA») and later bitter struggles. We must further develop the theory of the three worlds, two worlds in dispute for world hegemony while the other power seeks to benefit itself. Then there are the masses of the oppressed nations. Furthermore, the first world is redefining itself.


There are many Party documents that address this topic, however, we look at the Preparatory Session of the 2nd Plenary Session. Bureaucratic capitalism is evolving in cycles with gradients. It has temporary recoveries but each new cycle starts from a lower point than the previous one. It has been this way for 30 years. We must see how it is evolving:

1. The third stage of bureaucratic capitalism, of contemporary Peruvian society, began in 1980.

2. The general crisis is evolving. It can have recoveries until its destruction, and with the people‘s war the process of destruction of the economic system will aggravate.

The people‘s war has been added to the process of destruction of bureaucratic capitalism, and for this reason its economy cannot recover like of the neighboring countries. Our war is being managed politically, with sabotage and armed strikes, which limits investments. The security factor raises insurance rates, and so on.

Bureaucratic capitalism is in decline. It is in decomposition since the 1980s and it is being forced to collapse by the people‘s war. The loans it gets from imperialism have harsher conditions for the oppressed nations. They can only expect major investments when imperialist interests heightens. When they say «what a bad example, we must crush it, send in money», this in turn leads to a more general putrefaction, such as in Vietnam and Korea.

It is necessary to develop the criteria of the two roads. We must see how the peasant road is developing, and how the new economy is developing in contrast. Pedraglioxiv says there are beneficial conditions for the Huallaga Zone. We see a decline due to the war. We must see how the peasantry is developing, and see also how the seeds and flowers of the new State are opening the way to a new economy.


We must develop the understanding of our specific war. See what its own laws are, how campaigns are being developed, why they don‘t clearly and fully develop. We have our own programs and politics to destroy the system. There is something particular about this war or the circumstances in which it is being fought. Consider the fact that the reactionary armed forces entered the war in the third year, what is the particularity in this? How did the Initiation develop? The plan to undermine the old order, how do the campaigns develop? How did the stages occur? How does the intervention or aggression by imperialism occur? We must see the peculiarities within the road of surrounding the cities from the countryside, see the outline, with the countryside as the main theater of war and the cities as a complement. We must find what is specific in our people‘s war, even in the forms of struggle. For example, the armed strikes are very important.

All of this serves to understand the laws of our war. We are now in the strategic stalemate. We must prepare the synthesis of the laws of war of the entire first stage, and on that basis establish the laws of the second stage and outline the laws of the third stage in order to choose the appropriate, specific path of the people‘s war.

Thus, we will handle and crush the acts, activities, and campaigns waged by the reactionaries who try to recover themselves, and thus we must persist in the conquest of power.

We must be clear on the road to follow and define the laws of the war well. We must see the nature of our army, see how we built it, and have transformed into a more developed organization. The legions of iron have their own particularities. We must see strategy and tactics.

There are three parts to define. In the first we must spread a clear understanding of the war, its course, situation, and perspective so that the masses, the class, and the peasantry know this. By taking up and applying our laws, we will reach to our inexorable goal. If we commit no errors, the timespan will be less. There is a variable of repercussion, that is the international situation, but the revolution is sustained here. Although outside support is indispensable; one of the considerations focuses on this. U.S. imperialism and the other imperialists may intervene. The political conditions demand that they expand and exemplify that such a bad example doesn‘t spread. They may launch their system and give a crushing blow and things may become more serious. It is a probability, but another Vietnam is not convenient for them, however, the turn that things are taking in the USA is like saying «they should tremble» and «no one should dare to raise their voice» before an empire that imposes its will on small nations. So how can they let a youngster impale them up front? Their necessity may demand to crush us, but we will keep on fighting. It is better to be prepared for all conditions.

1. The importance of this, which is a limitation, is that it doesn‘t consider the specific character of our people‘s war, and that they don‘t apply their tactics to the specific conditions. Thus, each day we will have to confront new problems.

2. They talk and talk, and what do they get out of this? We must understand basic things, understanding what is specific and what is the main thing. Some make mistakes, they prefer to keep moving their heads, because at heart they don‘t want the war. The situation in Peru will become more acute.

The Party cadres and members must be forged in general warfare, in revolutionary warfare, and the war in this country.


1. A new plan that takes into account all the experiences of these years has been prepared. It will again establish the main axes, sub-axes, directions and lines of movement with an outline of its general characteristics.

2. In 1978, we said that the countryside was the main thing, the cities complementary; the situation of Peru, and so on. In the Party document of 1986 there was a sketch. We must outline all of Peru and its regions, to build it in a great unity; for example, to see the Highlands, the South, the East, Loreto, Madre de Dios, which is a weak point in this State; see the borders, and the coast. If we don‘t handle things this way, what plan are we talking about? We must see the main regions, the fundamentals, and others defining each one. We must see city and countryside. Yesterday we saw the transfer of land in the countryside. We must develop the people‘s war and prepare conditions for the insurrections in the cities.

We must see and understand the contradiction (countryside ↔ city), develop the war in the countryside and see how to manage it in the cities.

3. The reactionaries are proposing to pass over to defend their cities, which are their strong points. See how they develop civic actions, intelligence, and control in the slums. The revolution from the countryside to the city begins to touch points in the cities; they are retreating, this is revealed by seeing the work plan in the cities.

4. We must seek other forms of developing, and launching military campaigns of the strategic plan, fixing our sights, for example, on such objectives and completing them in time.

5. The enemy‘s necessity is to develop campaigns to recover and hold, therefore, we must prepare ourselves for that.

6. We must resolve the question of the Front Headquarters. This is a complex issue. Look at its personnel and system; a headquarter that must decide what force must go where and develop, for example, in the North-Eastern campaign in China.xv They sent cadres, troops, and arms. Thus, the more the plan is managed the more it develops. It must have more initiative and give more weight to the subjective capacity and have a greater criterion of a unified work. The war needs more thought. We see too many roving rebel groups. Either we see the war as a great unity or we will lose people.

7. We must see the Strategic Construction Plan. It is already being applied as a pilot plan. Very little is reported about the construction, only that it is being applied. And the experiences? In the meetings of the committees we must plan the Strategic Construction Plan. We must see that there are documents from the Preparatory Session of the 2nd Plenary Session where we see the course of the organizational line, and always see our own experiences in everything, first and foremost. We must develop a Strategic Construction Plan based on the «Three Bases and Three Guides»xvi, bearing in mind the following: In the general orientation of Party work, construction is the basis, the people‘s war is the main thing, and the Congress is the guide. In the work of construction, the Party is the guide, the Army is the main thing, and the new State is central. «Develop, Build, and Conquer!», this slogan is appropriate.

Regarding the three instruments. The Party says «develop them». The Strategic Plan (see the Preparatory Session of the 2nd Plenary Session of the 1st Central Committee, Point 2 of the Outline) which refers to the Strategic Construction Plan, this is not quite accurate. It should say «Develop the Strategic Construction Plan of the Party, the Army, and the United Front».

We must develop our work with initiative, flexibility, and planning. We must make a Strategic Construction Plan for each apparatus, seeing its basis and guide.

For the Party: Specify its growth and consolidation. For the Army: develop and strengthen its structure, its construction, its training. (See the consolidation in «Introducing The Communist».xvii) See institutions, infantry, artillery, for example grenades and mortars; the immense mass is infantry, cavalry to develop faster deployment; communications, health. Give training an improvement. In warfare, elevate the fighting spirit and seize arms. Strengthening has to do with fighting spirit.

In the new State, it must be extended and given stability. In the Party, organize the Central Department. Expand the Central Committee.

8. In the Army, strengthen the Army in mobile warfare, develop and raise its fighting capacity. In the new State, form a government and develop the State organization, have a plan, a basis, a guide and a key problem. Always take up key problems. In the Front, see how we are materializing it.

9. The axis for the Front is the Specific Program.xviii We must see the alliance, the hegemony of the proletariat, and the four classes. We need the Front to seize power. If there is an imperialist aggression, it will be converted into a National Front, which will also lead to contradictions. When we propose to strengthen the national production, even the national bourgeoisie is in agreement with this proposal. On this issue there are convergences and divergences.

The 6th Plan to Build the Conquest of Power. In 1981, we implemented a plan based on an in-depth study of the country. Ten years later, it would be a good idea to return to this study of the country. This plan will be applied here, in this old society, but it will surely serve the interests of the new society that is being developed today, directed by the Party.

i Comrade Gonzalo is referring to the observations made by Mao Zedong in «Reading Notes on the Soviet Textbook Political Economy» (1961-62).

ii Bernard Morel (1946-2021) was a French economist and social-democratic politician. His main contribution was in the field of economic forecasts.

iii Colin Clark (1905-89) was a British and Australian economist. His main contribution to economics was pioneering the use of gross national product in the study of national economies.

iv The World Bank — An international financial institution headquartered in Washington which represents the economic domination of U.S. imperialism in the world.

v The comments made by Comrade Gonzalo here on the dictatorship of the proletariat are very brief. They are developed further in the other documents of the 2nd and 3rd Plenary Sessions of the 1st Central Committee.

vi Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, comte de Tocqueville (1805-59) was a French aristocrat and proto-fascist political philosopher. He argued that revolutions should serve only to centralize and perfect the State machine and that ideology should play no role in the making of a revolution.

vii Eugen Dühring (1833-1921) was a German Right-social-democrat and anti-marxist. He wrote a long series of pretentious books in which he claimed to have developed a «universal system of philosophy, political economy and socialism». He is today only remembered for the polemic which Friedrich Engels wrote against him in 1876-78, «Anti-Dühring», which defined and synthesized marxism.

viii Comrade Gonzalo is referring to the following remark in the May 16th Circular of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China: «Chairman Mao often says that there is no construction without destruction. Destruction means criticism and repudiation; it means revolution. It involves reasoning things out, which is construction. Put destruction first, and in the process you have construction.»

ix Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (1894-1971) was the 1st Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964. After Comrade Stalin‘s death in 1953, Khrushchev maneuvered himself into power by allying himself with Georgy Zhukov, Marshal of the Red Army, and executed or purged many of Stalin‘s supporters. At the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956, Khrushchev attacked Stalin heavily in order to discredit the socialist system, and at the 22nd Congress in 1961, he systematically revised the fundamental principles of marxism. Khrushchev‘s variant of revisionism became extremely prevalent in the international communist movement and most countries today still have a Khrushchevite political party.

x It is not clear who Pomelli is referring to.

xi See V. I. Lenin: «May Day Action by the Revolutionary Proletariat» (15.06.1913)

xii This refers to the genocide committed by the European colonialists when they arrived in the Americas. In the largest genocide in pre-imperialist world history, the American indigenous population was reduced from 100,000,000 people to a mere 10,000,000. At the same time, 100,000,000 African people were enslaved and worked to death. All of this took place over the course of a mere 400 years.

xiii Central Committee of the Communist Party of Peru: «May the Strategic Stalemate Shake the Country More!» (November 1991)

xiv Remigio Morales Bermúdez Pedraglio (1947-) is a Peruvian politician and member of the APRA party. He served as Deputy to the Peruvian Congress in 1985-90 and Minister of Agriculture in 1986-88, during Alan García‘s first government.

xv See Mao Zedong: «The Concept of Operations for the Liaoxi-Shenyang Campaign» (September-October 1948)

xvi The «Three Bases and Three Guides» were established at the Preparatory Session of the 2nd Plenary Session of the 1st Central Committee of the Communist Party of Peru in October-November 1990. It consisted of two general orientations for Party work and construction work, respectively. The general orientation for Party work was: «Construction is the basis, the people‘s war is the main thing and the Congress (basis of Party unity) is the guide.» The general orientation for construction work was: «The Party is the guide, the People‘s Guerrilla Army is the main thing and the new State is the central thing and the basis.» This policy was summed up n the slogan: «Develop, build and conquer!».

xvii See Mao Zedong: «Introducing The Communist» (04.10.1939)

xviii The Specific Program of the Communist Party of Peru was not adopted at the 1st Congress in 1988-89, but rather decided upon at the plenary sessions of the Central Committee depending upon the different levels of development of the people‘s war. As the people‘s war entered the strategic defensive in 1990, the 2nd Plenary Session of the 1st Central Committee decided upon the following Specific Program:

«Against hunger, unemployment and the crisis — For soil, wages and national production.

Against repression and genocide — For the people‘s rights and the people‘s war.

Against the old State and imperialism — For the People‘s Republic of Peru.»