Proletarians of all countries, unite!
There is one goal, the conquest of power!
LONG LIVE THE INDIAN REVOLUTION!
ADOPTED AT THE 1ST PLENUM OF THE PROVISIONAL CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF SWITZERLAND (RED FACTION)
„England, it is true, in causing a social revolution in Hindostan, was actuated only by the vilest interests, and was stupid in her manner of enforcing them. But that is not the question. The question is, can mankind fulfil its destiny without a fundamental revolution in the social state of Asia? If not, whatever may have been the crimes of England she was the unconscious tool of history in bringing about that revolution.“Karl Marx: „The British Rule in India“ (10.06.1853)
„Everywhere in Asia a mighty democratic movement is growing, spreading and gaining in strength. The bourgeoisie there is as yet siding with the people against reaction. Hundreds of millions of people are awakening to life, light and freedom. What delight this world movement is arousing in the hearts of all class-conscious workers, who know that the path to collectivism lies through democracy!
All the commanders of Europe, all the European bourgeoisie are in alliance with all the forces of reaction and medievalism […]
But all young Asia, that is, the hundreds of millions of Asian working people, has a reliable ally in the proletariat of all civilised countries. No force on earth can prevent its victory, which will liberate both the peoples of Europe and the peoples of Asia.“V. I. Lenin: „Backward Europe and Advanced Asia“ (18.05.1913)
„In every state throughout India the peasants are today in a state of unrest, the communists must show them the path. That path is the politics of armed struggle and the gun-collection campaign. We must firmly uphold this one and only path of liberation. The great cultural revolution of China has declared a war on all kinds of selfishness, group mentality, revisionism, tailism of the bourgeoisie, eulogy of bourgeois ideology — the blazing impact of that revolution has reached India also. The call of that revolution is: ‚Be prepared to resolutely make all kinds of sacrifices, remove the obstacles along the path one by one, victory shall be ours.‘ However terrible the appearance of imperialism, however ugly the snare laid by revisionism, the days of the reactionary forces are numbered, the bright sunrays of marxism-leninism-Mao Tse-tung thought shall wipe off all darkness.“Charu Majumdar: „Carry Forward the Peasant Struggle by Fighting Revisionism“ (April 1967)
„A thousand deeds cry out to be done.
The Communist Party of India (Maoist) calls on all workers, peasants and all democrats and patriots, all those who desire revolution, all those who are concerned about the well-being and dignity of the masses to rally to assist us in these onerous tasks. We call upon all communist revolutionary groups who treasure marxism-leninism-maoism to extend their hand of unity in order to create a strong revolutionary party in India. We call upon all patriotic Indians residing abroad to rise to the occasion to strengthen the revolutionary effort in their motherland. Together we all must seize the hour! Seize the day!
To all those who desire to maintain the status quo the Communist Party of India (Maoist) defiantly declares that the day of reckoning will surely come. The trees may want to rest but the wind will not subside. A hurricane of unprecedented proportions is in the making in the remote villages. As it accumulates strength it will sweep through the plains and the urban citadels uprooting the decadent, obsolete and exploitative rule. Because we dare to struggle, dare to win.“„Hail the Formation of the Communist Party of India (Maoist)!“ (September 2004)
RESOLUTION: LONG LIVE THE INDIAN REVOLUTION!
A storm rages across India. From the Himalayas in the North to the Indian Ocean in the South, from Kashmir in the West to Manipur in the East, a great revolution is sweeping across the land. Millions of Indian people are waging a just war of liberation, that is transforming everything in its wake. A new world is being born.
India — the largest of the super-exploited and super-oppressed 3rd world countries — has a population of 1,3 billion (the second-largest in the world, comprising more than 1/8 of the global population), an area of 3,2 million square kilometers (the seventh-largest in the world) and one of the world‘s largest economies. When, and not if, the Indian revolution succeeds, it will not only completely turn that country upside-down, but it will shake the entire world to its core. A successful revolution in India would be a blow to the imperialist system unlike any seen since the Chinese revolution of 1949, which created the until now greatest instability of imperialism — that is, the capitalism of today — ever seen in world history.
In view of the above, the Communist Party of Switzerland (Red Faction), at the 1st Plenum of its Provisional Central Committee, extends its firm, unwavering, communist greetings to the Communist Party of India (Maoist), its Central Committee and General Secretary Comrade Basavraj; to the People‘s Liberation Guerrilla Army under its firm directorship; to the millions and millions of people who make up the revolutionary people‘s committees; and to the revolutionary, progressive and democratic organizations which support the people‘s war in India by whatever means.
It is the duty of all communists, revolutionaries, progressives, democrats and patriotic-minded people in the whole world to support the people‘s war being waged in India.
For this reason, we have adopted this present resolution. This resolution will discuss the importance of the Indian people‘s war, its context within the imperialist world system and the proletarian world revolution, its perspectives, the Party which directs it, its problems and their solutions, and the need for defending, supporting and learning from the Indian revolution with all our abilities. We consider this resolution to be of significance for our work as well as that of the international communist movement.
1. THE PEOPLE‘S WAR WAGED IN INDIA SIGNIFIES A
NEW WAVE OF THE WORLD REVOLUTION
In his famous speech, held on the 24th of September 1992 after his arrest, Chairman Gonzalo1 foresaw the coming development of the world revolution:
„Finally now, listen to this. As we see in the world, maoism is marching unstoppably to lead the new wave of the proletarian world revolution. Listen well and understand! Those who have ears, use them. Those who have understanding — and we all have it — use it! Enough of this nonsense. Enough of these obscurities! Let us understand that! What is unfolding in the world? What do we need? We need maoism to be embodied, and it is being embodied, and by generating Communist Parties to drive and lead this new great wave of the proletarian world revolution that is coming.
[…] the 3rd world is the basis of the proletarian world revolution, with one condition, that the Communist Parties brandish and lead! That is what we must do!“2
We are seeing how the perspective that Chairman Gonzalo outlined is increasingly being concretized. More and more Communist Parties are being founded and refounded on the basis of the marxism of today — that is marxism-leninism-maoism — and especially so in the 3rd world — meaning the colonial and semicolonial countries. The people’s war being waged in India is the most clear example of this.
The Party leading this war, the Communist Party of India (Maoist), was founded on the 21st of September 2004, through the merger of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People‘s War and the Maoist Communist Center of India. The founding of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) was simultaneously the founding of a party capable of transforming decades of armed struggle led by different factions into one single torrent of people‘s war, but it was also the refounding of three revolutionary communist parties which had existed in India before, each having carried the torch of the Indian revolution at some point in time: the Communist Party of India, the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist). What the 21st of September 2004 represents is the culmination of a long process of refounding the party of Comrades Charu Majumdar3 and Kanai Chatterjee4 — two of the leaders of the Indian revolution. Chairman Gonzalo called for the communists of the world to take up maoism, and he called on the Communist Parties to lead. This is what is being done in India.
The Founding Congress of the CPI (Maoist) declared:
„The merged organization, the Communist Party of India (Maoist), is not just a simple arithmetic addition of our forces. It is a synergetic combition of two forces. It is a fusion of decades of varied experience, of lessons learnt — it is a merger of hard acquired wisdom. Forces that were battling separately and independently against a common enemy with a common goal have now been brought under a single directing center. Latent talents and energies, which could not find expression in the limitations of a separate existence, can now flower. We will maturely and judiciously utilize these forces we have inherited, combine skillfully the science of revolution and the art of war, and increasingly deepen our grasp of the reality of the world we live in — thereby the Indian democratic revolution will be poised for a leap ahead.“5
At that time, there were no less than four people‘s wars unfolding in the world. A new great wave of the world revolution was beginning to develop. Today, as both the people‘s wars in India and on the Philippines are preparing to enter the strategic stalemate, which opens up the perspective of conquering power in the entirety of both countries, as the people‘s war has been reinitiated in Burma, and as the Maoist Communist Party of Turkey/Northern Kurdistan — the one and true party of Chairman İbrahim Kaypakkaya6 — has been refounded and is preparing to reinitiate the people‘s war in Turkey/Northern Kurdistan, we see Chairman Gonzalo’s predictions proven in practice. The people‘s war in India, as the strongest of these people‘s wars, is naturally at the forefront of the proletarian world revolution today.
All exploited and oppressed people call out for social change — they call out for revolution. They want a profound transformation of the entire society, an end of a social order of oppression, of exploitation. In India, such a transformation, such a change, such a revolution is taking place right before our eyes.
2. INDIA IS THE WEAKEST LINK IN THE IMPERIALIST CHAIN
The Communist Party of Peru, with Chairman Gonzalo at its head, did not just limit themselves to short statement about the role of the communists, specifically in the third world. Chairman Gonzalo paid special attention to the development of the world revolution not just in Peru, or in the imperialist countries, but specifically in the super-exploited and super-oppressed countries of the 3rd world, in the colonies and semi-colonies. As is stated in the international line of the Communist Party of Peru:
„Today, the most incendiary conflicting points are […] in the immense strategic region of Asia, a region where great masses are concentrated, for example in India. If they sufficiently developed communist parties, it would serve to powerfully advance the revolution.“7
India should be seen within the broader framework of Southern Asia, Asia in general and the 3rd world as a whole — as part of the great basis of the entire socio-economic system of the world. Imperialism depends on India more than on any other country in the world; from this fact stems the great importance of the Indian revolution in overthrowing imperialism, not just in India itself, but in the entire world. The success of the Indian revolution will echo in all countries, and lead people all over the world to rise up in revolutionary war as well.
When explaining the reasons for the victory of the Russian revolution, Stalin explained that tsarist Russia was the most despotic of all countries, a major economic and military reserve of imperialism, the watchdog of imperialism in Eastern Europe, and the most faithful lackey of imperialism in Asia. Therefore, the revolution in Russia assumed an international character — it was bound to shake the entire imperialist system upon its success.8
Today, it is Asia which is the weakest part of the imperialist chain — and in India, the link is breaking apart. India, which is ruled by the hindu-fascist BJP9 regime, which conducts nuclear blackmail against its neighbors on behalf of imperialism, whose troops threatened to crush the people‘s war in Nepal, which assaulted socialist China in the 1960s, which ruthlessly oppresses its various nations, dalits10, adivasis11, a population center of more than 1,300,000,000 people with immense natural resources and productive capabilities abused by imperialism and bureaucratic-comprador capitalism — this India, is it not precisely this key link in the world revolution today? The victory of the people‘s war in India will not only turn that country upside-down, no — it will, as Lenin foresaw, shake the imperialist countries to their core as well.
India is the key to the proletarian world revolution. Imperialism‘s dependance on the Indian people is enormous, expressed through the deepened development of bureaucratic-comprador capitalism in the country. The Indian economy is nominally worth 2,700,000,000,000 USD; it is the world‘s sixth-largest consumer market; it is the world‘s ninth-largest importer and 12th-largest exporter; the Indian labor force comprises over 500,000,000 workers, mainly in the industrial sector; India is the world‘s sixth-largest manufacturer; it produces more than 50% of the world‘s vaccines and 191,000,000,000 USD worth of IT supplies, including the production of very valuable microchips; it is the world‘s fourth-largest producer of minerals, third-largest producer of raw steel. From this can be seen the economic weight of India in the world, as the main economic pillar of world imperialism today.
India borders the countries of Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Burma directly; it is also close to Thailand, Malaysia, Ceylon, the Maldives and Indonesia. India also contains innumerable nations and peoples, which in some cases develop their own revolutionary wars, as in Manipur and Kashmir. The development and victory of the people‘s war in India will be the spark that lights the prarie in all of these places. In China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, people‘s wars took place in the past. Their praries will soon burn with the same flames which burn in Dandakaranya12, as the landscape of Burma now does as well.
The victory of the people‘s war in India will tip the scales of the entire imperialist world system of today, create a powerful socialist support base for the world revolution, and signal a reemergent strategic stalemate of the proletarian world revolution, opening up the perspective of the 21st century truly being „a century of people‘s wars“, as the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement declared in 2000.13From this follows the enormous importance of the people‘s war in India for the proletarian world revolution.
3. A NEW WORLD IS BEING BORN
The eyes of all communists and revolutionaries of the world are pinned on the Indian revolution. All progressive people, as soon as they hear of the Indian people’s liberation struggle, respond with joy and hope. All genuine democrats and honest patriotic people support their fight for a truly democratic and independent India. It is only a minority of people, only those whose interests go against new democracy, socialism and communism, as well as those who believe the lies of the imperialists, who would not support the just war waged by the Indian people.
Why? Because in India, whereever the Party goes, whereever the people‘s army goes, a new life blooms and flowers. A new political system, a new economy, a new culture — these are the fruits of the people‘s war in India. Chairman Mao said:
„We communists are like seeds and the people are like the soil. Wherever we go, we must unite with the people, take root and blossom among them.“14
We see how these seeds are sprouting today. They will spread and cover all of India, and no force in the world will be able to prevent old India from being turned upside-down, becoming a new, free and happy India.
In the revolutionary people‘s committees — which are present at the village, area and divisional level, aiming toward the establishment of base areas and a people‘s government on the countrywide level — a new economy, new politics and new culture are being built. The Communist Party of India (Maoist) has stated:
„The rulers accuse us of violence, of destruction. But what about the violence of this society they protect? Isn‘t their social system a continuous assault on human existence? When will they account for the countless lives destroyed every minute, or the living dead who barely manage to exist? Where will they answer for the destruction and havoc they create in society and the environment? Our violence is a just reply to this. What we destroy is this human-devouring system, its values and culture. But this is not some mindless act. With the participation and support of the vast masses of the oppressed people of this country, the People‘s Liberation Guerrilla Army led by our Party destroys to create. Its violence is purposeful. It is ploughing up the land to clear out anti-people and obsolete relations, structures and institutions. Together with the masses, it plants and builds a new political power, a new social order. These now exist at the primary level as revolutionary people‘s committees (popularly known as krantikari janatana sarkars, krantikari jan committees or viplava praja committees) in the guerrilla bases of Central and Eastern India.
These centres of new political power are as yet mere specs in this vast land. But they already make possible a meaningful life, vibrant with the strength of cooperation, collectivity, rich in values of humane care and concern. They realise the centuries old dream of the exploited to be their own masters. They ensure land to the peasantry. They allow the adivasis to foster the new while nurturing their distinctiveness. They enable the dalits to live a life of dignity. They create space for women by supporting their struggle for liberation. This is the promise of a future for India — a democratic, sovereign, federal, people‘s republic; self-reliant, just and equitable. This is what is possible if we dare to fight and reach for the heights.“15
This new power is being born all across India, stretching across an area inhabited by hundreds of millions of people. This is the power of the masses and the people, the transformative ability of the people‘s war and the vitality of communism.
In a recent interview16, Comrade Abhay, the spokesperson of the Party’s Central Committee, stated that the current goal the Indian comrades are advancing towards is the liberation of the federal States Bihar and Jharkhand, as well as the area Dandakaranya. Fulfilling this objective would mean the creation of liberated areas with a combined population of almost 200,000,000 people. This is around 2.5% of the world population or 25 times the population of Switzerland, to put it in perspective. Clearly, this will not merely be a victory for the Indian revolution, but of the entire world revolution.
4. THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDIA (MAOIST) IS A GREAT, GLORIOUS AND CORRECT PARTY
Chairman Mao said:
„If there is to be revolution, there must be a revolutionary party. Without a revolutionary party, without a party built on the marxist-leninist revolutionary theory and in the marxist-leninist revolutionary style, it is impossible to lead the working class and the broad masses of the people to defeat imperialism and its running dogs. In the more than 100 years since the birth of marxism, it was only through the example of the Russian bolsheviks in leading the October revolution, in leading socialist construction and in defeating fascist aggression that revolutionary parties of a new type were formed and developed in the world. With the birth of revolutionary parties of this type, the face of the world revolution has changed. The change has been so great that transformations utterly inconceivable to people of the older generation have come into being amid fire and thunder. The Communist Party of China is a party built and developed on the model of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. With the birth of the Communist Party of China, the face of the Chinese revolution took on an altogether new aspect. Is this fact not clear enough?“17
There cannot be any revolution with a communist party which is under revisionist — that is to say, communist in words, but capitalist in deeds — control. No, even more — revisionists, by adopting a world outlook and class position contrary to marxism, in fact expel themselves from the Party. It then becomes the task of all genuine marxists inside of the Party to fight to purge it of revisionists, because revisionism is our enemy to the death.
Summing up the experience of the fight against revisionism inside of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and calling upon the communists to found the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) in 1969, Chairman Charu Majumdar wrote:
„The Naxalbari peasant struggle has developed only because the party organization of the Terai region followed this teaching of the Chairman [Mao] and tried to spread it among the peasant masses. The peasant struggles in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Andhra have broken out only by depending on the teaching of the Chairman. Revolutionary authority cannot grow if we depend only on the local initiatives for developing all these struggles along the same path and to a higher stage. As a result, the struggles will fail to develop to a higher stage. For taking these struggles forward it is necessary to build an all-India Party and a centre recognized by all revolutionaries. Self-imposed discipline is essential for building up this centre. This discipline cannot of course be imposed from the above; it must be voluntary. The All-India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries was set up with this purpose in view and this was set down in the very first Declaration. It is by following the leadership of the Coordination Committee that revolutionaries in different states of India have tried to build up peasant struggles on the Naxalbari line and succeeded in doing so in many parts of the country. This has led to the formation of a centre accepted by the revolutionaries. That is why the international leadership has been reminding us time and again of the importance of building up a Party. We too realize today that it is no longer possible for the Coordination Committee to lead these struggles on the correct line. Therefore, we must have a revolutionary Communist Party which will be an all-India organization. It is by following its lead that the revolutionary communists of the different states can advance along the path of class struggle. The All-India Coordination Committee is not, of course, the perfect weapon of class struggle, for the Coordination Committee can function only on democratic principles, does not recognize any kind of centralism and so fails to rouse the sense of discipline among the revolutionaries. All the forces of class struggle cannot be centralized without awakening the sense of revolutionary discipline. As a consequence, the struggle loses its edge. The Chairman has taught us: ‚Be resolute, fear no sacrifice and surmount every difficult to win victory.‘ Unless we build up a revolutionary party, discipline will remain slack and, as a result, we shall not be resolute enough to make supreme sacrifices, shall be unable to surmount the obstacles to attain victory. That is why, at a time when revolutionary communists all over the country have given priority to the task of building revolutionary bases in the rural areas and have taken up the work of uniting the entire peasantry, at a time when the slogan of revolutionary class struggle is rending the sky, it has become our urgent duty to build a revolutionary party. We shall be hindering the advance of revolution if we confine ourselves within the Coordination Committee and shall fail to fulfill the heavy responsibility that has now fallen on the shoulders of India‘s communist revolutionaries. It should be borne in mind that the world has now entered a new era of world revolution and that our responsibility in this era is very great. All the imperialist powers of the world, whether the U.S. imperialists or the Soviet social-fascists, are trying to win a fresh lease of life by exploiting the 500,000,000 people of India. They are not content with merely exploiting, but are trying to use the 500,000,000 people of India as cannon-fodder in a war to destroy the great Chinese Republic, the base of the world revolution. That is why our revolutionary duty has assumed such great proportions. By making the revolution we shall be able not only to end this brutal exploitation of the vast masses of our country but also to deal a staggering blow to world imperialism and revisionism. By uniting with the great Chinese Republic we shall unite with the liberation struggles of every country of the world. This will forge the unity of the vast forces that will be able to smash world imperialism and revisionism.“18
This important lesson has been applied by the leaders of the Indian revolution and its fulfillment in practice is the Communist Party of India (Maoist) — a party which could only be founded through the struggle against revisionism, for the unification of all genuine communists in India and for the reinitiation of the people‘s war. Through the armed struggle against the enemy and the internal struggle against revisionism, this Party has become strong, consolidated, bolshevized19 and powerful — a force to be reckoned with, capable of waging people‘s war to make the Indian democratic revolution and after it, the socialist revolution, a reality.
The Communist Party of India (Maoist) is a great communist party because through decades of struggle, it has become the vanguard of the Indian proletariat. It is a glorious communist party, because it is able to surmount any difficulty and handle any loss, on the road to victory. And it is a correct communist party, because its programme and line has proven generally correct in its historic experience of directing the people‘s war in India. Therefore, we must learn a lot from the Communist Party of India (Maoist).
5. WE HOPE THAT OUR INDIAN COMRADES WILL BUILD BASE AREAS, ACHIEVE STRATEGIC STALEMATE AND ADOPT THE STRATEGY OF UNIFIED PEOPLE‘S WAR
The Communist Party of India (Maoist) is taking concrete steps forward. In 2020, 12 area Party committees were founded in Telangana and the state Party committee was refounded. There have again been activities in Jharkand and West Bengal. And in the February 2021 issue of People‘s March, the newspaper of the Party, we could read:
„[The People‘s Liberation Guerrilla Army] gained strength and is developing into higher armed formations of guerilla army with the objective to transform into People‘s Liberation Army. The pyramid structure of the People‘s Liberation Guerrilla Army is developing from the thousands of people‘s militia that is the base force from among the hundreds of thousands of revolutionary people and is evolving into sections, platoons, companies and battalion formations in the vast tracts of guerilla zones in strategic areas.“
These are concrete steps in preparing the strategic stalemate of the people‘s war, defined by Chairman Mao:
„The second stage may be termed one of strategic stalemate. At the tail end of the first stage, the enemy will be forced to fix certain terminal points to his strategic offensive owing to his shortage of troops and our firm resistance, and upon reaching them he will stop his strategic offensive and enter the stage of safeguarding his occupied areas. In the second stage, the enemy will attempt to safeguard the occupied areas and to make them his own by the fraudulent method of setting up puppet governments, while plundering the Chinese people to the limit; but again he will be confronted with stubborn guerrilla warfare. Taking advantage of the fact that the enemy‘s rear is unguarded, our guerrilla warfare will develop extensively in the first stage, and many base areas will be established, seriously threatening the enemy‘s consolidation of the occupied areas, and so in the second stage there will still be widespread fighting. In this stage, our form of fighting will be primarily guerrilla warfare, supplemented by mobile warfare. […] Owing to the loss of big cities and the hardships of war, vacillating elements within our ranks will clamour for compromise, and pessimism will grow to a serious extent. Our tasks will then be to mobilize the whole people to unite as one person and carry on the war with unflinching perseverance, to broaden and consolidate the united front, sweep away all pessimism and ideas of compromise, promote the will to hard struggle and apply new wartime policies, and so to weather the hardships. […] This second stage will be the transitional stage of the entire war; it will be the most trying period but also the pivotal one. […] If we can persevere in the War of Resistance, in the united front and in the protracted war, China will in that stage gain the power to change from weakness to strength. It will be the second act in the three-act drama of China‘s War of Resistance. And through the efforts of the entire cast it will become possible to perform a most brilliant last act.“20
We are happy to hear of these new developments in the people‘s war — nonetheless, it is necessary to state our position on the future of the armed struggle in India. As the people‘s war grows in strength in the countryside and base areas begin to emerge, it will be necessary to handle the development of the people‘s war in India‘s cities, where more than 30% of the population lives. We find statements such as these to be insufficient:
„Thus the correct dialectical relationship has to be maintained between the development of the urban movement and the development of the people‘s war. We should, by building up a strong urban movement, ensure that the urban masses contribute to creating the conditions that will obtain success for the armed struggle in the countryside. As we have seen in the earlier section, India has a larger proportion of the population in urban areas and a much larger working class than at the time of the Chinese revolution. This too increases the relative importance of urban work in the particular conditions of Indian revolution.“21
We find this to be insufficient because the work of the Party in the urban areas is portrayed solely as a „strong urban movement“ which will „contribute to creating conditions that will obtain success for the armed struggle in the countryside“. However, with 30% of the Indian population living in enormous cities and widespread urban areas, especially in slums, how can these areas be left to the enemy until the end of the people‘s war? It is clear that the policy must be dual: on the one hand and mainly, development of the people‘s war by surrounding the cities from the countryside, and on the other hand and complementarily, developing the people‘s war in the slums in order to build a „steel belt“ around the enemy cities, choking off supply lines and ambushing military convoys headed through the outskirts of the cities.
This strategy is called unified people‘s war and was established by Chairman Gonzalo based on the experiences of the proletarian world revolution — among other things, the people‘s wars in Brazil, India, the Philippines and Vietnam. Chairman Gonzalo explains:
„People‘s war is universally applicable, in accordance with the character of the revolution and adapted to the specific conditions of each country. Otherwise, it cannot be carried out. In our case, the particularities are very clear. It is a struggle that is waged in the countryside and in the city, as was established as far back as 1968 in the plan for the people‘s war. Here we have a difference, a particularity: it is waged in the countryside and the city. This, we believe, has to do with our own specific conditions. Latin America, for instance, has cities which are proportionately larger than those on other continents. It is a reality of Latin America that can‘t be ignored. Just look at the capital of Peru, for example, which has a high percentage of the country‘s population. So, for us, the city could not be left aside, and the war had to be developed there as well. But the struggle in the countryside is main, the struggle in the city a necessary complement.
Our situation now leads us to consider how we are going to prepare the city, or the cities, to generalize it. This has to do with developing our mass work, but within and for the people‘s war. We have done this, and we continue to do it. The point is that we have begun to develop it more. We think that our activity in the cities is indispensable and it must be pushed forward more and more, because that is where the proletariat is concentrated and we cannot leave it in the hands of revisionism or opportunism.
The slums are in the cities, the shantytowns with their vast masses. Since 1976 we‘ve had guidelines for work in the cities. Take mass neighborhoods and slums as the foundation and the proletariat as the leading force. This is our policy and we will continue to apply it, now, under conditions of people‘s war.
What masses do we direct our work at? This you can see. From what‘s already been said, it‘s clear that the vast masses of the mass neighborhoods and slums are a belt of steel that is going to encircle the enemy and hold back the reactionary forces.“22
It is our position that the unified people‘s war is a very important contribution by Chairman Gonzalo to the development of the military theory of the international working class. It is part of the reason why Gonzalo thought is universally applicable and its contributions have to be taken up by all communists, together with such important contributions as the militarization23 of the communist party and concentrically building the army and the front ↔ State around the Party.
Until the Communist Party of India (Maoist) incorporates these universally valid aspects of Gonzalo thought into the creative application of marxism-leninism-maoism to the Indian revolution, as part of its ideological basis of Party unity, it will not be possible for the people‘s war in India to advance past the strategic stalemate except under very special conditions.24 This is how matters stand. Nonetheless, we are completely certain that our Indian comrades will fight to continue the people‘s war at all costs, learning from international and historical experience in order to reach the correct conclusions, which will bring the people‘s war closer to final victory each day.
6. FIGHT ALL THOSE WHO OPPOSE THE PEOPLE‘S WAR IN INDIA
In the international communist movement of today, there are certain tiny revisionist sects present, which have attached themselves to our movement with the aim to suck the blood from the revolutionary working class in their respective countries. They have taken up „support“ of the people‘s war in India in words only. Behind closed doors, they gossip — the „leader“ of one such organization — the German so-called „Committee Red Flag“ — even stated, in the most lumpen way, „fuck the Indians“, when asked why the Communist Party of India (Maoist) was not present at an international meeting.
Such people are not our comrades, are not friends of the people‘s war in India, are enemies of the international proletariat.And as such, they must be fought. To oppose the people‘s war in India is a counterrevolutionary act — it brings blood debt upon you. And more so each day, as the people‘s war conquers new victories and contributes to a bright, socialist and communist future for all of humanity. Can people who oppose these victories, these contributions, enter communism together with the rest of humanity? Not a chance. They will be left behind.
7. THE PEOPLE‘S WAR WILL INEVITABLY WIN
In 1965, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China summed up the theory of people‘s war as follows:
„Chairman Mao Tse-tung has provided a masterly summary of the strategy and tactics of people‘s war: ‚You fight in your way and we fight in ours; we fight when we can win and move away when we can‘t.‘
In other words, you rely on modern weapons and we rely on highly conscious revolutionary people; you give full play to your superiority and we give full play to ours; you have your way of fighting and we have ours. When you want to fight us, we don‘t let you and you can‘t even find us. But when we want to fight you, we make sure that you can’t get away and we hit you squarely on the chin and wipe you out. When we are able to wipe you out, we do so with a vengeance; when we can‘t, we see to it that you don‘t wipe us out. It is opportunism if one won‘t fight when one can win. It is adventurism if one insists on fighting when one can‘t win. Fighting is the pivot of all our strategy and tactics. It is because of the necessity of fighting that we admit the necessity of moving away. The sole purpose of moving away is to fight and bring about the final and complete destruction of the enemy. This strategy and these tactics can be applied only when one relies on the broad masses of the people, and such application brings the superiority of people‘s war into full play. However superior he may be in technical equipment and whatever tricks he may resort to, the enemy will find himself in the passive position of having to receive blows, and the initiative will always be in our hands.“25
This thesis holds true — for India and for all other countries. The people‘s war is militarily invincible — it cannot be defeated by any imperialism or reaction. The communist party is a heroic warrior, like Chairman Mao said, wielding the two magic weapons of the people‘s army and the revolutionary united front; can such a warrior be defeated?
The only thing capable of killing such a heroic warrior is cancer — revisionism. The best way to conquer a fortress is from within. Thus, history has shown that while the people‘s war is militarily undefeatable, it is politically defeatable. The people‘s wars in Nepal, Thailand and Malaya were defeated through betrayal by revisionist directorship. The people‘s war in Peru was defeated through a coup by revisionists. The defeat of the people‘s war in Indonesia was made possible by revisionist influence in the Party.
The Communist Party of India (Maoist), however, has purged itself of revisionism and continues to do so every day. It is a powerful party, a fighting party, the war machine which the proletariat, masses and people of India need.
In Peking Review on the 5th of July, 1967, the Communist Party of China celebrated the heroic Naxalbari uprising, which signaled the initiation of the first people‘s war in India. It reads:
„[…] no matter how well the imperialists, Indian reactionaries and the modern revisionists may cooperate in their sabotage and suppression, the torch of armed struggle lighted by the revolutionaries in the Communist Party of India and the revolutionary peasants in Darjeeling will not be put out. ‚A single spark can start a prairie fire.‘ The spark in Darjeeling will start a prairie fire and will certainly set the vast expanses of India ablaze. That a great storm of revolutionary armed struggle will eventually sweep across the length and breadth of India is certain. Although the course of the Indian revolutionary struggle will be long and tortuous, the Indian revolution, guided by great marxism-leninism-Mao Tse-tung thought, will surely triumph.“
As long as our Indian comrades persist on the road of surrounding the cities from the countryside, the road of uninterrupted revolution, the road of conquering and defending State power with people‘s war until communism, then no force will be able to stop the Indian working class from fulfilling its historic destiny: to put the final nail in the coffin of imperialism.
Three worlds have delineated themselves on a world scale. The 1st world comprises the three superpowers: U.S. imperialism (the only hegemonic superpower, that is, the only one which dominates other imperialist States), Russian imperialism (a military superpower) and Chinese social-imperialism (an economic superpower). The 2nd world comprises other imperialist powers, such as Switzerland, Japan, Germany, Great Britain and France. The 3rd world comprises the colonial or semi-colonial countries. Just as the people‘s war in one oppressed country follows the road of encircling the cities from the countryside while still waging revolutionary war in the cities and preparing the insurrections, so does the world people‘s war encircle the imperialist countries from the 3rd world, carrying out people‘s war in the 3rd world mainly and in the imperialist countries as a complement, until the „insurrection“ takes place during the global strategic offensive and imperialism finally falls. Today, we are in the strategic defensive of this world people‘s war. With the victory of the people‘s wars in India or a number of smaller countries, we will enter the strategic stalemate of this world people‘s war.
This world people‘s war should not be understood as one global revolutionary war, but rather as a complex system of wars of all types — imperialist wars of aggression, inter-imperialist wars, national liberation wars and people‘s wars — in which the peoples of the world coordinate their advances through the refounded Communist International, the World Party of the international working class, which applies strategic centralization and tactical decentralization, relying on each Communist Party‘s self-reliance, independence and autonomy to carry out its revolutionary work, as the allied command of the different revolutionary armed forces the world over. The world people‘s war is thus not a „permanent revolution“ of the trotskyite type or a „united action“ of the Khrushchev-Brezhnev type, but rather a genuinely communist thesis.
Imperialism is, and continues to be, the eve of the proletarian revolution. Slowly but surely though, even if it may seem to some that we are destined to die in the dark of night of imperialism, a red sun is rising in the East, in India, that guides us towards humanities bright future. The working class, the masses and the peoples of the world will defeat imperialism, and make the worldwide strategic offensive of the international working class revolution a reality. Today, we can clearly see that this goal, that so many have already sacrificed their life and freedom for, can only be achieved through people’s war, the revolutionary strategy which will also be used to defend the revolution, the socialist system, once it reigns victorious. And the struggle for communism will not stop there, because socialism is not a consolidated system, but a transitional phase from class to classless society, a revolutionary process of socialist construction and uninterrupted proletarian cultural revolution. Our demands are quite simple: all we want is the Earth. An Earth without classes, without patriarchy, with no exploitation of human by human. All we want is communism. And we know that the Swiss and Indian communist stand on the same side of the barricade in this fight. To have comrades like this is an honor to us.
The people’s war in India is the most decisive battle for the liberation of the working class and the liberation of all of humanity being waged today. The red flag flying over countless Revolutionary People’s Committees all over India is not merely the flag of the Indian working class, the Indian masses or the Indian people. No, it is our red flag as well. The flag of the international working class, the flag of communism.
THE RED SUN DAWNS: A NEW WORLD IS BEING BORN IN INDIA!
A NEW WAVE OF THE WORLD REVOLUTION IS COMING! OPEN UP MORE REVOLUTIONARY WAR FRONTS TO SUPPORT THE INDIAN PEOPLE!
IMPERIALISTS, REACTIONARIES AND ALL OPPRESSORS: WHEN THE PEOPLE‘S LIBERATION GUERRILLA ARMY AIMS, IT HITS THE TARGET!
HONOR AND GLORY TO THE HEROIC AND FIGHTING INDIAN WORKERS, MASSES AND PEOPLE!
HONOR AND GLORY TO THE FALLEN HEROES OF THE PEOPLE‘S WAR IN INDIA!
ETERNAL HONOR AND GLORY TO CHAIRMAN CHARU MAJUMDAR, IMMORTAL LEADER OF THE INDIAN REVOLUTION!
INDIAN COMRADES: WE WILL MARCH SHOULDER BY SHOULDER WITH YOU UNTIL COMMUNISM!
To conclude, our Provisional Central Committee sends our warmest red greetings to the the current counter-campaign and resistance being developed by the People‘s Liberation Guerrilla Army against the fascist, genocidal and counterrevolutionary Prahaar-3 „encirclement and annihilation“ campaign — utilizing the experience from defeating the people‘s war in Peru, the Indian reactionaries are now applying the same U.S. strategy of „low-intensity warfare“, including portraying the genocidal armed forces as a „welfare force“ to „aid“ the peasants. But this strategy will fail — communists have never lost wars when they have stuck to their principles. All the bourgeoisie‘s „superior strategies“, such as Hitler‘s „lightning warfare“ or Chiang Kai-shek‘s „blockhouse warfare“, have been smashed with people‘s war.ThePrahaar-3 campaign is nothing but a pipe dream launched by the murderous and backwards Indian State. But they will not be able to dream on for long, as the resounding answer from the communist militants, the fighters of the People‘s Liberation Guerrilla Army and the masses of the revolutionary movement will be an unignorable wake-up call to the landlords and bureaucratic-comprador capitalists that run India, and to the imperialists. While they may think that revolutions can be drowned in blood, the reality is a different one: every drop of blood they spill only waters the revolution, making it grow stronger. We call on all communists and socialist revolutionaries in Switzerland to support the international action day on November 24th in accordance with the instructions issued by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) in its recent press statement.26
PROVISIONAL CENTRAL COMMITTEE
COMMUNIST PARTY OF SWITZERLAND (RED FACTION)
1Chairman Gonzalo (1934-2021) — The foremost leader of the Communist Party of Peru, who led the people‘s war in Peru from May 17th, 1980 to September 12th, 1992, when he was captured by the enemy. He died after 29 years imprisonment on September 11th, 2021. He was a great communist leader and theoretician, responsible for defining and synthesizing maoism.
2Lima Base, Communist Party of Peru: „Chairman Gonzalo‘s Speech Shines Victoriously and Powerfully Before the World!“, October 1992.
3Chairman Charu Majumdar (1919-72) — The founder of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist), which in May 1967 initiated the people‘s war in India. The Communist Party of India (Maoist) traces its legacy to him and his party.
4Comrade Kanai Chatterjee (1933-83) — Another Indian communist leader and a contemporary of Charu Majumdar‘s. He founded the Maoist Communist Center of India, which later became part of the Communist Party of India (Maoist).
5Communist Party of India (Maoist): Hail the Formation of the Communist Party of India (Maoist)!, „Editorial“, 2004.
6Chairman İbrahim Kaypakkaya (1949-73) — Founder and historic leader of the Communist Party of Turkey (Marxist-Leninist), today the Maoist Communist Party of Turkey/Northern Kurdistan. Inspired by the proletarian cultural revolution, he initiated and led armed struggle for the new democratic revolution in Turkey/Northern Kurdistan and died from torture at a young age.
71st Congress of the Communist Party of Peru: General Political Line, „1. International Line“, 1988.
8See J. V. Stalin: The Foundations of Leninism, „1. The Historical Roots of Leninism“, April 1924.
9Indian People‘s Party (BJP) — A hindu-fascist political party in India and the ruling political party of India since 2014. Its spokesperson is Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India. In 2002, Narendra Modi led widespread anti-muslim pogroms in the federal state of Gujarat, killing more than 2,000 and displacing more than 150,000.
10Dalits, also known as „untouchables“, are the lowest caste in the Indian caste system. 16.6% of the Indian population belong to the dalit caste.
11Adivasis are the indigenous tribal peoples of India, comprising 8.6% of India‘s population.
12Dandakaranya is the largest guerrilla base in India. It comprises an area of more than 50,000,000 people across 92,200 square kilometers of mainly jungle.
13See Revolutionary Internationalist Movement: „For a Century of People‘s Wars!“, 01.01.2000.
14Chairman Mao Tse-tung: „On the Chungking Negotiations“, 17.10.1945.
15Central Committee of the Communist Party of India (Maoist): „A Call to the People of India! Shatter the Shackles of Imperialism and Feudalism, Destroy this Rotten System! Build Your Future and that of the Country With Your Own Hands!“, 01.09.2014.
16Comrade Abhay, Spokesperson, Central Committee of the Communist Party of India (Maoist): „Interview with Comrade Abhay“, November 2021.
17Chairman Mao Tse-tung: „Revolutionary Forces of the World, Unite! Fight Against Imperialist Aggression!“, November 1948.
18Charu Majumdar: „Why Must We Form the Party Now?“, March 1969.
19A bolshevized party is a party organized based on structures in the places where the masses are concentrated, such as large workplaces, working and poor neighborhoods, villages and army barracks. The Communist International initiated a large campaign for the bolshevization of the Communist Parties of the world at the 5th World Congress in 1924. For more information on the bolshevization campaign, see J. V. Stalin: „The Prospects of the Communist Party of Germany and the Question of Bolshevization“, 03.02.1925. For more information on the bolshevization campaign of the Communist Party of India (Maoist), see the circular of the Central Regional Bureau of the Party: „Let Us Improve Marxism-Leninism-Maoism in Our Thoughts and Practice and Strengthen Our Party Leadership!“, 2017, in People‘s War No. 11.
20Chairman Mao Tse-tung: „On Protracted War“, May 1938.
21Communist Party of India (Maoist): „Urban Perspectives“.
22Central Committee of the Communist Party of Peru: Interview With Chairman Gonzalo, July 1988.
23The militarization of the Communist Party is a contribution by Chairman Gonzalo to the development of communist theory and practice. In the line of building the three revolutionary instruments of the Communist Party of Peru, adopted at its 1st Congress of 1988-89, militarization is defined as „the set of transformations, changes and readjustments [the Party] needs to direct the people‘s war as the main form of struggle that will generate the new State“. In our view, militarization is needed for three main reasons: (1) We live in the epoch in which imperialism simply must be destroyed, if humanity and the Earth is not to be decimated through imperialist war and climate change. (2) We must prevent capitalist restoration by having a Party which exercises all-round dictatorship over the people‘s army and the new State, and engulf the people‘s army in a militia comprising 90% of the population. (3) We can only guarantee the dictatorship of the proletariat against heavily militarized imperialism through our own militarization. Chairman Gonzalo emphasizes: „Thus taking the Party as the axis of everything, build the Army around it and with these instruments, with the masses in the people‘s war, build the new State around both. That the militarization of the Party can only be carried forward through concrete actions of the class struggle, concrete military-type actions; this does not mean we will only carry out various types of military actions exclusively (guerrilla actions, sabotages, selective annihilation, armed propaganda and agitation) but that we must carry out mainly these forms so as to provide incentive and development to the class struggle, teaching with deeds, with these types of actions as the main form of struggle in the people‘s war. […] It is the militarization of the Party which has enabled us to initiate and develop the people‘s war. We consider that this experience has universal validity, and for that reason it is a requirement and necessary for the Communist Parties of the world to militarize themselves.
The concentric construction of the three instruments is the organic fulfillment of the militarization of the Party and in synthesis it is summarized in what Chairman Gonzalo teaches: ‚The Party is the axis of everything, it directs the three instruments in an all-round way, its own construction, it absolutely directs the Army and the new State as a joint dictatorship aiming toward the dictatorship of the proletariat.‘“ (Ibid.)
24It would only be possible to win without the militarization of the Party, concentrically building the three instruments and waging unified people‘s war, in special cases where either the imperialists are weakened or distracted by a world war, for some reason do not intervene, or there are proletarian revolutions breaking out in the imperialist superpowers (the U.S., Russia and China). Under any other circumstances, imperialist intervention would be able to limit the people‘s war to isolated countryside areas. This fact shows the immense importance of adopting Gonzalo thought.
25Lin Piao: „Long Live the Victory of People‘s War!“, 03.09.1965.
26See Central Committee of the Communist Party of India (Maoist): „Make Successful the International Action Day on November 24th in Opposing the ‚Prahaar‘ Military Campaign Operated by the Fascist Modi Government!“, 07.11.2021.