SUDAN: As Eyes of the World Are Fixed on Ukraine, Imperialists Renew Colonial Occupation

The imperialist superpowers are strengthening their respective influence in Sudan.


  • The 19,000-troop strong U.N. occupational force in South Sudan has been extended by the U.N. Security Council until March 2023.
  • The occupational force is a joint project headed by U.S. and Chinese imperialism with the assistance of other imperialist and reactionary powers. The occupation is part of the colonial subjugation of the Sudanese nation.
  • Russian imperialism is strengthening its ties with the Government of North Sudan, thus increasing the risk of an inter-imperialist war in the country.
  • It is necessary to oppose the colonial occupation and partition of Sudan and to support all the just national struggles of the Sudanese people against the imperialists and reactionaries.

«The history of the 20th century, this century of ‹unbridled imperialism›, is replete with colonial wars. But what we Europeans, the imperialist oppressors of the majority of the peoples of the world, with our habitual, despicable European chauvinism, call ‹colonial wars› are often national wars, or national rebellions of those oppressed peoples. One of the main features of imperialism is that it accelerates the development of capitalism in the most backward countries, and thereby widens and intensifies the struggle against national oppression. This is a fact. It inevitably follows from this that imperialism must often give rise to national wars.


To deny all possibility of national wars under imperialism is wrong in theory, obviously mistaken historically, and in practice is tantamount to European chauvinism: we who belong to nations that oppress hundreds of millions of people in Europe, Africa, Asia, and so on, must tell the oppressed peoples that it is ‹impossible› for them to wage war against ‹our› nations!»

V. I. Lenin: «The Military Program of the Proletarian Revolution» (September 1916)

The U.S. and other powers belonging to the Western imperialist bloc are screaming about «violations of human rights», «war of aggression», «illegal warfare» and «breaches of international law» when it comes to the war of aggression waged by Russian imperialism against Ukraine. The imperialist and reactionary powers of Western and Central Europe are taking in millions of Ukrainian refugees — Switzerland having extended «Protection Status S» to Ukrainian refugees in a historic first. That is all well and good — Russia is waging an illegal war of aggression and plunder and the Ukrainian refugees should be welcomed and supported in every way possible. But as Comrade Stalin correctly pointed out almost a century ago and as Comrade Rashid from the USA recently wrote in an important statement: «It is only an ‹illegal war› when it happens to white people.» Stalin pointed out:

«Formerly, the national question was usually confined to a narrow circle of questions, concerning, primarily, ‹civilised› nationalities. The Irish, the Hungarians, the Poles, the Finns, the Serbs, and several other European nationalities — that was the circle of unequal peoples in whose destinies the leaders of the 2nd International were interested. The scores and hundreds of millions of Asian and African peoples who are suffering national oppression in its most savage and cruel form usually remained outside of their field of vision. They hesitated to put white and black, ‹civilised› and ‹uncivilised› on the same plane. Two or three meaningless, lukewarm resolutions, which carefully evaded the question of liberating the colonies — that was all the leaders of the 2nd International could boast of. Now we can say that this duplicity and half-heartedness in dealing with the national question has been brought to an end. Leninism laid bare this crying incongruity, broke down the wall between whites and blacks, between European and Asians, between the ‹civilised› and ‹uncivilised› slaves of imperialism, and thus linked the national question with the question of the colonies. The national question was thereby transformed from a particular and internal State problem into a general and international problem, into a world problem of emancipating the oppressed peoples in the dependent countries and colonies from the yoke of imperialism.»

J. V. Stalin: «The Foundations of Leninism» (April 1924)

Communists and revolutionaries must thus pay special attention to colonial oppression when it occurs outside of Europe, in the vast majority of the oppressed nations, and not only in Europe. This is necessary in order to expose the imperialists‘ and opportunists‘ hypocrisy.

Did the Swiss imperialists welcome thousands of Iraqi refugees? No — the ones who arrived were locked up in concentration camps, where they still remain, if they have not already been deported. Did the Moldavian reactionaries over-extend their capacities welcoming in Yemeni refugees? No — they only do so for the «civilized» Ukrainians. Did the Danish imperialists welcome Syrian refugees with open arms? No — they have decided to send them home to «safe» Syria and have bought a prison in Kosovo in which to «store» other refugees. And in a most blatantly racist statement, reported by20 Minutes on 16.03.2022,Swiss People‘s Party parliamentary group leader Thomas Aeschi «warned» that «only real Ukrainians, who in fact are Ukrainians» and not «rapist Nigerians or Iraqis with Ukrainian passports» should be let into Switzerland!The imperialists and reactionaries are once more showing their true face when it comes to the question of refugees.

But that is not all. While the eyes of the world are fixed on the Russo-Ukrainian War, the imperialists are intensifying their colonial wars of aggression and plunder against other third-world nations. These wars are no less «illegal» and violate «human rights» just as much as the Russian invasion and occupation of Ukraine. Let us look at the colonial occupation of Sudan. According to Deutsche Welle:

«The United Nations Security Council has voted to extend the mandate of its peacekeeping mission in South Sudan for one more year, calling for political dialogue to prevent the country from returning to civil war.

The United States-sponsored resolution received 13 votes in the council, with China and Russia choosing to abstain. Under the extension, the U.N. Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) will remain in the world‘s newest nation until March 15th, 2023.

The current level of deployment — with a troop ceiling at 17,000 and police ceiling at 2,101 — shall be maintained.


Under the resolution, the goal of the peacekeeping mission is to ‹prevent a return to civil war in South Sudan, to build durable peace at the local and national levels, and to support inclusive and accountable governance and free, fair, and peaceful elections›.

South Sudan, which gained independence from Sudan in 2011, has seen chronic instability in the years that followed. The country saw a bitter civil war between 2013 and 2018, which left nearly 400,000 dead and millions displaced.»

Sudan gained its independence from British imperialism and the Egyptian reactionaries in the 1950s. Since then, the State and non-State capitalist factions, in alliance with the Sudanese landlords and slave-owners, have contended with each other for control of the country, allying themselves with respectively the Russian and the U.S. imperialists. Throughout the history of Sudan, it was the Arab reactionaries of North Sudan who controlled the State apparatus and oppressed the people of South Sudan. As a result of the Sudanese civil wars and the imperialist intervention of U.S. and Chinese imperialism against the Russian-imperialist-backed government of Omar al-Bashir, a separate State was created in the South under the colonial control of the U.S. and Chinese imperialists, while Russia maintained semi-colonial control of the North (except for a brief period in 2019-21).

The Sudanese nation (with both its Arab and tribal parts) has not been allowed to historically form due to imperialist oppression. That is the basis for the separation into two different States. The separation in 2011 was not progressive — it was the establishment of colonial oppression in part of the country and is an obstacle to carrying out the necessary Sudanese revolution against imperialism, Arab semi-feudalism, tribal semi-slavery and the bureaucratic-comprador-capitalists who run the puppet governments in the two parts of the country. The renewal of the U.N. occupational force in South Sudan is nothing but a strengthening of colonial domination, a strengthening of bureaucratic-comprador capitalism (that is capitalism created by imperialist investment in feudal and slave economies), as well as a strengthening of the semi-slave mode of production which predominates in the tribal areas of South Sudan. Such are the crimes of the supposed «peacekeepers», who hypocritically talk about «war crimes» and «illegal occupation» when it comes to Europeans, but who practice the most barbaric enslavement of nations when it comes to Africans.

It should be specifically pointed out that, although the U.S. and other Western imperialist powers on the one hand and the Russian and Chinese imperialists on the other hand generally form two distinct and opposed imperialist blocs, U.S. imperialism and Chinese imperialism act in collusion when it comes to Sudan and contend with the Russian imperialists there. This is for example expressed in the fact that China participated in the creation of the mission originally and actively participates in its directorship. The U.N. General Secretary appointed Guang Cong, former diplomat in the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to be Deputy Head of the U.N. Mission in South Sudan. Guang Cong has previously served as a representative of Chinese imperialism to the African Union and other such bodies.

This is not all. The «peacekeeping» imperialists and reactionaries hypocritically claim:

«Under its extended mandate, the U.N. mission‘s first priority remains the protection of civilians under threat of physical violence. This includes deterring, preventing and responding to sexual and gender-based violence ‹within its capacity and areas of deployment›


Amazing! The U.N. occupational force is there to «prevent sexual violence»! But what about when the U.N. forces themselves are the perpetrators of patriarchal sexual violence against women? A leaked internal U.N. report about the «peacekeeping» force in Yugoslavia from 2007 stated:

«1. In April 2004, the Investigation Task Force (ITF) received information alleging cases of sexual exploitation committed by a staff member of Pristina Airport. According to this information, several female staff members were forced into sexual relations with the staff member driven by threats to their continuing employment at the airport.

2. The IFT investigated these allegations, but the victims failed to provide any corroborating evidence to allow a full investigation by the ITF or for the matter to be referred to judicial authorities for their action.

3. In the absence of such corroboration, the matter has been closed by the ITF.»,_28_Jul_2007

So according to this report, not only do U.N. forces in the third world commit patriarchal violence — the U.N. itself also covers up the cases! This clearly shows the hypocrisy of the imperialists and reactionaries when it comes to third-world nations: «It‘s only ‹sexual violence› when the Africans do it!»

But the civil war in Sudan is not over. Under the guise of «national self-determination», the Sudanese nation — which has not even been allowed to fully form — was split in two. The northern 2/3 was given to Russian imperialism, whereas the southern 1/3 was transformed into an occupational zone of the U.S. and China, with the participation of the Norwegian imperialists and Vietnamese and South African reactionaries — including former Apartheid-era officials who have leading posts in the U.N. mission. At present, Russia is also strengthening its position in North Sudan. According to The Defense Post:

«As much of the West seeks to isolate Russia after it invaded Ukraine, experts say Moscow is boosting relations with its longtime African ally Sudan, eyeing its gold wealth and strategic location.

Khartoum has lost crucial Western support since army chief Abdel Fattah al-Burhan led a military coup last October, a move that triggered broad condemnation and punitive measures, including a suspension of $700,000,000 in U.S. aid.

On February 23rd, the day before Russia invaded its neighbor, a Sudanese delegation headed by powerful paramilitary commander Mohamed Hamdan Daglo arrived in Moscow for an eight-day visit.

The two sides discussed ‹diplomatic, political and economic topics›, as well as ‹Russian-Sudanese national security […] joint cooperation and counterterrorism›, said Daglo, commonly known as Hemeti, at a news conference upon his return.

Sudan relied militarily on Russia under strongman Omar al-Bashir, who was ousted in 2019 following three decades in power marked by international isolation and crippling U.S. sanctions.

Russian private companies have reportedly benefited from Sudan‘s gold mines by ramping up ties with the military and Daglo‘s powerful Rapid Support Forces, which emerged from the Janjaweed militias accused of atrocities during the Darfur conflict that erupted in 2003.

‹Moscow has been following a clear and coherent policy […] to serve its interests› in Sudan and in Africa more broadly, analyst Khaled al-Tijani said.

‹Russian investments in Sudan, especially in gold, and ties with security forces have remained shrouded in ambiguity›, he added.


Researcher Ahmed Hussein said that Daglo likely discussed in Moscow arrangements between his forces and ‹Russian (security) apparatuses with links in Sudan and Africa, especially Wagner Group›.

Wagner, a Russian private military contractor with links to the Kremlin, has faced accusations of involvement in turmoil in Sudan‘s neighbors the Central African Republic and Libya, while French President Emmanuel Macron last month warned of the shadowy group‘s ‹predatory intentions› in Mali.

The European Council on Foreign Relations has said Wagner personnel were deployed in Sudan ‹to mining exploration sites› following a 2017 meeting between Bashir and Russian President Vladimir Putin, who agreed gold mining deals and negotiated the construction of a Russian naval base on Sudan‘s Red Sea coast.

Wagner personnel subsequently provided ‹a range of political and military assistance› to Bashir‘s regime, according to the ECFR.

Also in 2017, Russian mining firm M Invest gained preferential access to Sudan‘s gold reserves, according to the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Three years later, the U.S. imposed sanctions on Russian oligarch Yevgeny Prigozhin, who has links to M Invest and is believed to own Wagner, for ‹exploiting Sudan‘s natural resources for personal gain and spreading malign influence around the globe›.

The ECFR said Wagner had formed ‹a triangle of Russian influence linking Sudan, the Central African Republic and Libya›, reflecting ‹Moscow‘s strategic interest in expanding its Africa footprint›.

Daglo‘s RSF has itself been involved in the conflicts in Libya and Yemen.


As for the planned naval base in the strategic city of Port Sudan, ‹the Russians need to get to warm-water ports, and the Red Sea is an integral part of that ambition›, Hussein said.

In December 2020, Russia announced a 25-year deal with Sudan to build and operate the base, which would host nuclear-powered vessels and up to 300 military and civilian personnel.

The same month, Washington removed Khartoum‘s designation as a State sponsor of terrorism, a listing that had long crippled its economy.

In 2021, Sudanese military officials said the naval base deal was under ‹review› after certain clauses were found to be ‹somewhat harmful›.

Daglo said the base was not on the agenda in Moscow but that Sudan was ready to cooperate ‹with any country, provided it is in our interests and does not threaten our national security›.

Following Sudan‘s October coup, Russia told a U.N. Security Council meeting that General Burhan was needed to maintain stability, one diplomat had said on condition of anonymity.

Last week, Sudan joined 35 countries in abstaining from a U.N. General Assembly vote condemning Russia‘s invasion of Ukraine.

For researcher Hussein, Russia‘s growing interest in Africa ‹puts Khartoum in the eye of the storm — turning it into a battlefield for an international conflict that goes far beyond its borders›.

Many fear that Western opposition to the coup is pushing Khartoum further towards Moscow.

‹We‘re basically offering Sudan to the Russians on a silver platter›, one Western diplomat told AFP on condition of anonymity.

‹The generals sustained themselves under the Bashir-era embargo, which is why threats of isolation matter little today.›»

This interesting article speaks for itself. The imperialist superpowers and powers and their reactionary lackeys are consolidating their positions in Sudan in order to strengthen their control of the Sudanese nation — colonial control in the South and semi-colonial control in the North. Today, Sudan is an important point of contention within the context of Africa and in the world in general; just as in Ukraine, a flare-up of inter-imperialist war in Sudan has the potential to develop into a new world war. Therefore, we should support the independence struggles of the Sudanese people in whatever way possible, in order to put an end to the imperialist occupation as quickly as possible and thus decrease the danger of imperialist world war. Concretely:

1. We should oppose the U.N. «peacekeeping» forces in Sudan and the third world, which are nothing but shared colonial occupational forces of the imperialists and reactionaries in order to repartition the oppressed nations.

2. We should oppose imperialist investments and in particular construction of military bases in Sudan and the third world.

3. We should support every struggle of the Sudanese and other third-world peoples against the imperialist and reactionary occupants, even those struggles which may be waged under reactionary flags, as long as they are not simply imperialist puppet troops.

4. We should support every development of the labor movement in Sudan and other third-world countries which tends toward the founding or refounding of genuine, marxist-leninist-maoist Communist Parties. Such developments are taking place in many countries, such as in Swaziland, and it is necessary to support them while helping them struggle to overcome the old influence of revisionism in these countries.

The weight of Africa in the world is enormous. The development of successful national liberation and labor struggles on that continent would serve to powerfully weaken the imperialist world system; more so when these struggles can be transformed into people‘s wars directed by genuine Communist Parties. We must never lose sight of the importance of countries like Sudan in the world revolution.